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Remembering &
Forgetting
Psychology Unit 2





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The Multi Store Model ­ Atkinson & Shiffrin





Sensory Memory
Incoming information is stored as a literal copy for ½ a second
large capacity, but as the information is stored for such a short time, it is lost before
you have time to measure its capacity Sperling states that the…

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+ HM show separate STM and LTM as for example HM can remember LTM prior to the
injury and STM for current events but can't transfer information from STM to LTM to
make new memories, shows there are two separate stores.
too simplistic model, STM and LTM are more complex…

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Procedural
when you remember how to do a task unconsciously. You know how to do it, but you
can't put it into words. E.g. HM anterograde amnesia, trained to track a curvy line on a
rotating disk, over time he got better but couldn't remember ever doing it before.

Semantic…

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Levels of Processing
Craik & Lockhart proposed that process rather than structure was important and that
words can be processed at a number of levels, varying in depth. These are:
Shallow/structural level, this is a visual level, focussing on the visual properties of
the stimulus
Intermediate/phonetic level, an auditory level,…

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The Working Memory Model
Baddely & Hitch do not view STM as a single store, instead they identify 4 processors
within STM, each with a different function.

















The Central Executive
the main controller, it coordinates the activities of the other processors, allocates
attention to incoming information, can deal with any…

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2. The Phonological Store (the inner ear)
a limited capacity auditory rehearsal system which receives sound information
from the environment. It also receives auditory information from our own internal
speech via the articulatory loop e.g. when we hear our thoughts in our head

The VisuoSpatial Scratchpad (the inner eye)
A…

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The Serial Probe Technique
Participants are presented with a series of numbers, one of those numbers is then read
out by the experimenter (this is called the probe). Participants have to recall the number
after the probe.

Waugh & Norman
used the serial probe technique and found that if the…

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memory traces decay over time. If memories are not used, they will gradually fade away
over time
Ebbinghaus
found that forgetting followed the `forgetting curve' with rapid forgetting at first and
gradually levelling off.

Evaluation
+ supporting evidence from Ebbinghaus and Peterson & Peterson use decay for
explaining why trigrams…

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games a player had played rather than the time that had passed since each game, thus
supporting interference rather than decay.

Evaluation
interference does not cause forgetting with experts ­ for example learning several
different languages would be impossible due to all the confusion from interference, but
many people are…

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