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The Multi Store Model ­ Atkinson & Shiffrin
Sensory Memory
Incoming information is stored as a literal copy for ½ a second
large capacity, but as the information is stored for such a short time, it is lost before
you have time to measure its capacity Sperling states that the SM holds at least 9 items
modality specific (data is stored in the same form it came in) visual iconic, auditory
echoic
attention is needed for the information to continue into short term memory
Short…read more

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HM show separate STM and LTM as for example HM can remember LTM prior to the
injury and STM for current events but can't transfer information from STM to LTM to
make new memories, shows there are two separate stores.…read more

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Procedural
when you remember how to do a task unconsciously. You know how to do it, but you
can't put it into words. E.g. HM anterograde amnesia, trained to track a curvy line on a
rotating disk, over time he got better but couldn't remember ever doing it before.
Semantic
Learned information that is stored as knowledge, no conscious recall is required, and
you don't need to know when it was learnt/how it was learnt. E.g.…read more

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Levels of Processing
Craik & Lockhart proposed that process rather than structure was important and that
words can be processed at a number of levels, varying in depth.…read more

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The Phonological Store (the inner ear)
a limited capacity auditory rehearsal system which receives sound information
from the environment. It also receives auditory information from our own internal
speech via the articulatory loop e.g. when we hear our thoughts in our head
The VisuoSpatial Scratchpad (the inner eye)
A limited capacity rehearsal system where we can image and manipulate visual and
spatial information e.g. closing your eyes and visualising how to get to the nearest door
in the room around you.…read more

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The Serial Probe Technique
Participants are presented with a series of numbers, one of those numbers is then read
out by the experimenter (this is called the probe). Participants have to recall the number
after the probe.
Waugh & Norman
used the serial probe technique and found that if the probe was early on in the list, then
recall was poor (less than 20%) but if the probe was nearer the end of the list then recall
was good (80%).…read more

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If memories are not used, they will gradually fade away
over time
Ebbinghaus
found that forgetting followed the `forgetting curve' with rapid forgetting at first and
gradually levelling off.
Evaluation
+ supporting evidence from Ebbinghaus and Peterson & Peterson use decay for
explaining why trigrams had bad recall after 18 seconds as the trace was almost
completely destroyed
contradictory evidence from Jenkins & Dallanbach, gave participants material to learn
then split into two groups, one did tasks for 4 hours, one slept for 4 hours.…read more

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Evaluation
interference does not cause forgetting with experts ­ for example learning several
different languages would be impossible due to all the confusion from interference, but
many people are multilingual
+ practical application, this can be applied to education and revision, that very different
material should be learnt alongside each other to make forgetting less likely
simplistic theory, as it is only one explanation for forgetting, in LTM it is likely that
forgetting occurs because of a complex interaction of factors rather than just one…read more

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