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Unit 1 - Memory

Duration of memory: STM and LTM

Duration refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.

Duration of LTM

LTM refers to memories that last anywhere from 2 hours to 100 years.

Shepard tests the duration of LTM by showing participants 612…

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A second critisism is that Peterson and Person were not testing duration. When the
participants were counting backwards the nonsense trigram could have been
displaced in STM by the numbers, thus wiping out the memory for the syllables.
Therefore, Peterson and Peterson's research into duration may not be internally
valid.…

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Encoding is the way information is changed so that it can be stored in the memory.
Information is stored in various forms such as, visual codes [like a picture] acoustic
forms [sound] or a semantic form [the meaning of the memory]

Information in STM is mainly encoded acoustically [i.e information…

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STM

INFORMATION IS HELD HERE IN A FRAGILE STATE AND WILL DECAY QUICKLY IF NOT REHERSED. IT WILL ALSO
DECAY IF NEW INFORMATION ENTERS THE STM, DISPLACING THE ORIGIONAL INFORMATION. IN ORDER FOR
THIS INFORMATION TO BE PASSED THROUGH TO THE LTM IT NEEDS TO BE REHERSED.


THE MORE SOMETHING…

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BADDELY AND HITCH

"WORKING MEMORY" REFERS TO THE BIT OF YOUR MEMORY YOU USE WHEN WORKING ON A COMPLEX TASK
WHICH REQUIRES YOU TO STORE INFORMATION AS YOU GO ALONG, E.G. MATHS PROBLEMS.
IT CONTAINS 3 MAIN COMPONANTS:


CENTRAL EXECUTIVE

THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE DIRECTS INFORMATION FROM THE SENSES OR LTM…

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DIFFERENT STORES AND IS NOT UNINATARY.
HOWEVER, MUCH OF THE REASERCH CARRIED OUT COMES FROM CASE STUDIES. CASE STUDIES OFTEN USE
BRAIN DAMAGE PATIENTS AND THEREFORE THE RESULTS CAN NOT BE GENERALISED TO EVERYONE.
THEREFORE, CALLING INTO QUESTION THE VALIDITY OF THE REASERCH CARRIED OUT INTO THE WMM.
EWT -…

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ACCURACY OF EWT

ANXIETY

DEFFENBACHER CARRIED OUT A META ANALYSIS OF 18 STUDIES LOOKING AT THE EFFECTS OF
HEIGHTENED ANXIETY ON THE ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS RECALL. THIS FOUND THAT THERE WAS
CONSIDERABLE SUPPORT FOR THE HYPOTHESIS THAT HIGH LEVELS OF STRESS NEGATIVELY IMPACTED ON
THE ACCURACY…

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CORRECTLY IDENTIFYING AN INDIVIDUAL FOLLOWING A MOCK CRIME. IN THE PHOTO IDENTIFICATION TASK,
THE PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN HAD A HIGHER RATE OF OF CHOOSING 'SOMEBODY' THAN THE COLLEGE
STUDENT WITNESSES. ALTHOUGH, THE SCHOOL CHILDREN WERE ALSO MORE LIKELY TO MAKE ERRORS IN
THEIR IDENTIFICATION THAN THE COLLEGE STUDENTS.


YARMER STOPPED…

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THE COGNITIVE INTERVIEW

THE COGNITIVE INTERVIEW IS A POLICE TECHNIQUE FOR INTERVIEWING WITNESSES TO A CRIME. IT
ENCOURAGES THEM TO RECREATE THE ORIGINAL CONTEXT OF THE CRIME IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE
ACCESSIBILITY OF STORED INFORMATION. IN COMPARISON, THEIR IS A STANDARD INTERVIEW WHICH LACKS
THE 4 COMPONANTS OF THE…

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MNEMONIC TECHNIQUES

A MNEMONIC IS ANY STRUCTURED TECHNIQUE THAT IS USED TO HELP PEOPLE TO REMEMBER AND RECALL
INFORMATION. THESE TECHNIQUES ARE MOSTLY USED WHEN PEOPLE HAVE TO RECALL LARGE AMOUNTS
OF UNFAMILIAR DATA, OR MAKE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ITEMS WHICH ARE NOT USUALLY ASSOCIATED.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF VERBAL…

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