# Unit 1 - Memory AQA A

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Unit 1 - Memory
Duration of memory: STM and LTM
Duration refers to how long a memory lasts before it is no longer available.
Duration of LTM
LTM refers to memories that last anywhere from 2 hours to 100 years.
Shepard tests the duration of LTM by showing participants 612 memorable pictures,
one at a time. An hour later they were shown some of these pictures amoungst some
new pictures. Participants showed almost perfect recogntion. Four months later, they
were able to recall 50% of the images.
A more real life study was carried out by Bahrick et al. People of various ages were
asked to put names to faces from their high school year book. 48 years on, people
were about 70% accurate. This suggests that if the information to be remembered is
more meaningful to the participant, then the duration of long term memory is better.
Duration of STM
Peterson & Peterson conducted a lab experiment. Enlisted the help of 24 university
students. The experimenter said a nonsense triagram to the participant, followed by
a three digit number (e.g DTG 485) Consonant syllable was selected to have no
meaning. Immediately after hearing the syllable and number, the participant was
instructed to count backwards from a number in 3s or 4s until told to stop. The
participant was then asked to recall the nonsense trigram. Counting backwards
stopped participants from rehersing the information as this would aid recall. On each
trial the time spent counting backwards was different: 3,6,9,12 or 18 seconds. The
results were that participants could remember about 90% when there was only a 3
second interval, and about 2% when there was an 18 second interval. This suggests
that when rehersal is prevented, STM lasts about 20 seconds at most.
However, Narnie et al, found that items could be recalled after as long as 96 seconds.
In Narnie's study, participants were asked to recall the same items accross trials,
whereas in earlier studies different items were used on each trial which could have
lead to interfearence between items, decreasing recall. This suggests that
infomation remains in the STM for quite a while unless other material replaces or
overwrites it.
Validity
One critisism of Peterson and Peterson's reaserch is that only one kind of memory
was tested - memory for syllables and words. Most of the time our memories are
concerned with other things, such as what did I do last night, or what do my children
look like. This suggests that their research may not be externally valid.

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A second critisism is that Peterson and Person were not testing duration. When the
participants were counting backwards the nonsense trigram could have been
displaced in STM by the numbers, thus wiping out the memory for the syllables.
Therefore, Peterson and Peterson's research into duration may not be internally
valid.
Capacity of STM
Capacity is a measure of how much can be held in a memory. It is measured in terms
of bits of information such as number of digits.…read more

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Encoding is the way information is changed so that it can be stored in the memory.
Information is stored in various forms such as, visual codes [like a picture] acoustic
forms [sound] or a semantic form [the meaning of the memory]
Information in STM is mainly encoded acoustically [i.e information is repersented as
sounds] but sometimes uses visual (see Brandimonte) whereas information in LTM is
encoded semantically [i.…read more

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STM
INFORMATION IS HELD HERE IN A FRAGILE STATE AND WILL DECAY QUICKLY IF NOT REHERSED. IT WILL ALSO
DECAY IF NEW INFORMATION ENTERS THE STM, DISPLACING THE ORIGIONAL INFORMATION. IN ORDER FOR
THIS INFORMATION TO BE PASSED THROUGH TO THE LTM IT NEEDS TO BE REHERSED.
THE MORE SOMETHING IS REHERSED, THE MORE LIKELY IT IS TO BE REMEMBERED.
REHERSAL
MAINTENANCE
REPEATEDLY VISUALIDING/ VERBALISING INFORMATION.
USED TO ENSURE INFORMATION IS KEPT IN THE STM.…read more

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BADDELY AND HITCH
"WORKING MEMORY" REFERS TO THE BIT OF YOUR MEMORY YOU USE WHEN WORKING ON A COMPLEX TASK
WHICH REQUIRES YOU TO STORE INFORMATION AS YOU GO ALONG, E.G. MATHS PROBLEMS.
IT CONTAINS 3 MAIN COMPONANTS:
CENTRAL EXECUTIVE
THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE DIRECTS INFORMATION FROM THE SENSES OR LTM TO ONE OF THE TWO 'SLAVE
SYSTEMS'. IT HAS A VERY LIMITED CAPACITY AND THEREFORE CAN'T ATTEND TO TOO MANY THINGS AT
ONCE.…read more

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DIFFERENT STORES AND IS NOT UNINATARY.
HOWEVER, MUCH OF THE REASERCH CARRIED OUT COMES FROM CASE STUDIES. CASE STUDIES OFTEN USE
BRAIN DAMAGE PATIENTS AND THEREFORE THE RESULTS CAN NOT BE GENERALISED TO EVERYONE.
THEREFORE, CALLING INTO QUESTION THE VALIDITY OF THE REASERCH CARRIED OUT INTO THE WMM.
EWT - ACCURACY
LEADING QUESTIONS
LOFTUS AND PALMER - 45 STUDENTS WERE SHOWN 7 FILMS OF DIFFERENT ROAD TRAFIC ACCIDENTS.…read more

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FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE ACCURACY OF EWT
ANXIETY
DEFFENBACHER CARRIED OUT A META ANALYSIS OF 18 STUDIES LOOKING AT THE EFFECTS OF
HEIGHTENED ANXIETY ON THE ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS RECALL. THIS FOUND THAT THERE WAS
CONSIDERABLE SUPPORT FOR THE HYPOTHESIS THAT HIGH LEVELS OF STRESS NEGATIVELY IMPACTED ON
THE ACCURACY OF EYEWITNESS MEMORY.
HOWEVER, SOME STUDIES HAVE FOUND THAT EMOTIONAL AROUSAL MAY ACTUALLY ENHANSE THE
ACCURACY OF MEMORY.
CHRISTIANSON AND HUBINETTE FOUND THIS WHEN THEY QUESTIONED 58 REAL WITBNESSES TO BANK
ROBBERIES.…read more

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CORRECTLY IDENTIFYING AN INDIVIDUAL FOLLOWING A MOCK CRIME. IN THE PHOTO IDENTIFICATION TASK,
THE PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN HAD A HIGHER RATE OF OF CHOOSING 'SOMEBODY' THAN THE COLLEGE
STUDENT WITNESSES. ALTHOUGH, THE SCHOOL CHILDREN WERE ALSO MORE LIKELY TO MAKE ERRORS IN
THEIR IDENTIFICATION THAN THE COLLEGE STUDENTS.
YARMER STOPPED 651 ADULTS IN PUBLIC PLACES AND ASKED THEM TO RECALL THE PHYSICAL
CHARACTERISTICS OF A YOUNG WOMAN THEY HAD BEEN SPEAKING TO FOR 15 SECONDS JUST 2 MINUTES
EARLIER.…read more

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THE COGNITIVE INTERVIEW
THE COGNITIVE INTERVIEW IS A POLICE TECHNIQUE FOR INTERVIEWING WITNESSES TO A CRIME. IT
ENCOURAGES THEM TO RECREATE THE ORIGINAL CONTEXT OF THE CRIME IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE
ACCESSIBILITY OF STORED INFORMATION. IN COMPARISON, THEIR IS A STANDARD INTERVIEW WHICH LACKS
THE 4 COMPONANTS OF THE CI.
FISHER AND GISELMAN BASED THE CI ON PROVEN PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES ABOUT MEMORY RECALL.
1. REPORT EVERYTHING - THE INTERVIEWER ENCOURAGES REPORTING OF EVERY SINGLE DETAIL OF THE
EVENT, EVEN IF IT SEEMS IRRELEVENT.
2.…read more

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MNEMONIC TECHNIQUES
A MNEMONIC IS ANY STRUCTURED TECHNIQUE THAT IS USED TO HELP PEOPLE TO REMEMBER AND RECALL
INFORMATION. THESE TECHNIQUES ARE MOSTLY USED WHEN PEOPLE HAVE TO RECALL LARGE AMOUNTS
OF UNFAMILIAR DATA, OR MAKE ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN ITEMS WHICH ARE NOT USUALLY ASSOCIATED.
THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF VERBAL MNEMONICS:
VERBAL MNEMONICS
1. ACRONYM - A WORD OR SENTENCE WHICH IS MADE FROM THE INTIAL LETTERS/ WORDS TO BE
REMEMBERED.
2.…read more

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