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The primacy-recency effect
Primacy-recency effect ­ the tendency for the first few items and the last few items of a wordlist
to be recalled rather than those items in the middle of a word list.
Items recalled at the end of the list are due to the recency effect. The words are still in the STM,
items recalled from the beginning of a list are due to the primacy effect. The words have been
transferred in our LTM.…read more

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Key characteristics Strengths Limitations
Suggests that data Empirical evidence supports various aspect of Experiments supporting the mo
passes through a the model(e.g. Peterson and Peterson artificial way (we never normal
sensory store into a confirmed the duration of STM using trigrams of digits). This means that it is d
short term memory and Jacobs used digit span tasks to confirm the therefore, we do not fully unde
store.…read more

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There has been a lot of research carried out into the phonological loop and evidence for this
component comes from at least three areas:
1. Similarity of sound - Studies have demonstrated that similar sounding letters, VPBG, are
recalled less well than dissimilar letters, XAYW. Similarity of sound in words also has a
detrimental effect on recall, although similarity of meaning in words is unimportant. This
suggests that the code is phonological.
2.…read more

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Key characteristics Strengths Lim
Consists of 3 main components: As the role of the central executive is very broad, the The
1. The central executive: model helps us to understand the link between the ma
Controls and coordinates the different cognitive processes such as memory, suc
operation of the other components perception and attention. me
Has limited capacity
Working memory is a much more flexible alternative to We
2.…read more

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