AQA Politics Chapter 5 Key Terms

All the key terms which relate to the fifth chapter in the AQA Government and Politics AS textbook

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Chapter 5 Key Terms
Political parties ­ organisations of broadly like-minded people that seek to win elections in
order that they can then assume responsibility for controlling the apparatus of government
with a view to implementing their policies
Party whips ­ the officials who manage the supporters of their party in the House of
Commons and are responsible for maintaining discipline and unity. In British politics, the chief
whip is assisted by between 8 and 10 assistant whips, all members of parliament
Party system ­ the more or less stable pattern of political parties that normally compete in
national elections and the way in which they interact with each other
Party competition ­ where parties compete with each other over their aims, ideas and
policies in an electoral contest, each offering a different vision of the future. The competition
is on-going. The winning party is in government for a period of time (maximum 5 years) then
another election is held to determine if that party is still fit to run.
Catch all parties ­ are umbrella parties that seek to maximise their voter appeal by reaching
out to as many groups as possible, rather than representing a specific class, regional or
partisan interests
Horse trading ­ making shrewd bargains or deals that are of benefit to those who make
Adversary politics ­ relate to a period in which there is fundamental disagreement between
the parties on the political issues of the day. They are characterised by ideological
antagonism (a fierce clash of ideas and outlook) as part of an on-going electoral battle
between the major parties
Ideologues ­ are people who strongly commit to one body of ideas
Political spectrum ­ a way of visualising different political positions, stretching from far-left
parties that want radical or even revolutionary change, though more moderate groups of
left, centre and right, to far right extremists such as neo-fascists and neo-Nazis
Socialism ­ Socialists believe that unrestrained capitalism or free enterprise is responsible
for a variety of social evils, such as the exploitation of working people and the persuit of
greed and selfishness. They favour cooperative values which emphasise the values of
community, equality and justice, and state action to promote these values.
Liberalism ­ Associated with the values of individualism, liberty, rationalism, political and
legal equality and ideas which have influenced all parties to some degree. In economic and
social terms, classical liberals supported laissez faire, involving little government intervention
and regulation
Conservatism ­ a creed that generally opposes innovation and change and advocates
preserving the best of the established order in society
Fascism ­ the political movement associated with the regime of Mussolini in Italy between
the world wars. It is usually regarded as authoritarian, militaristic and in practice extremely
Marxian socialism ­ a variety of socialist thinking associated with the ideas of the left-wing
German political thinker, Karl Marx, which has a strong economic as well as an ethical
Clement Attlee ­ Prime Minister from 1945-51, introduced state welfare to Britain and
embarked on a programme of widespread nationalisation (the public ownership of key
industries and utilities)

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Egalitarian ­ means being committed to a belief in the equality of mankind
Utopian ­ relates to an idealistic belief in some future better form of society
Privatisation programme ­ is the policy of transferring of ownership of industries and
utilities from the public sector to the private sector, as pursued by the Thatcher government
in the 1980s
Equality of Outcome ­ is a form of egalitarianism which seeks to reduce or eliminate
differences in living standards between individuals or households in a society
Equality…read more

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Lib Lab Pact ­ an agreement between the Liberals and labour in which they agreed not to
stand against each other to get a larger Conservative offence in 1906
Equidistance ­ strategy to place Lib Dems in the centre between the Left and Right…read more


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