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· The UK has a limited and indirect democracy. This is
because we elect representatives to make decisions on
our behalf
· Britain is democratic because: We have an opposition,
Political Equality, Variety of political parties + pressure
groups, Free and fair elections, Free Media,
Independent Judiciary, Checks and Limitations on gov
· Isn't democratic because: Low turnout, Rise of Single
issue pressure groups, Shift in power to unelected
Quangos, Absence of a codified constitution, Lords
reform stalled, lack of HOC reform, Erosion of civil
liberties and FPTP system…read more

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Main forms of Political Participation
· Voting
· Referendums
· Contacting MPs/Becoming an MP
· Helping in the campaign election
· Membership of a pressure group
· Attending meetings, canvassing, leafleting
· TV or phone in programmes
· Participating in opinion polls or focus groups
· Direct action: Protests, Marches, Graffiti, Violence
· Political discussions…read more

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Why is there less participation today?
· Increasing use of pressure groups
· Disillusionment with party performance
· Party differences have narrowed
· The "under class" are uniformed, uninterested
and alienated from politics. Feel its irrelevant
· Scepticism about the reliability of politicians
· Social Disengagement, lack of community feel
· May reflect contentment with current politics…read more

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Facts and Quotes about Participation
· Levels of participation have fallen
· Crewe's survey of young people in UK/US
(1996) found 80% of British pupils engaged in
little of no political discussion
· Milbrath and Goel (1977)= Gladiator theory,
Gladiators, Spectators and Apathetics
· Parry et al (1992)= surveyed 1500 people,
concluded not everyone participates. 75%
active to some degree and the rest inactive…read more

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Likeliness to participate
Most likely to participate Least likely to participate
Age Middle Aged and Older People Younger People
Ethnicity Jewish and Asians Afro-Caribbean's
Gender Traditionally men but recently women more active
Location Urban Areas Rural and Inner Cities
Socialisation More politically active families Families with other priorities than
and politics
Social Class Professional and business people, Uneducated and lower classes. Those
those better educated who feel politics doesn't affect their
everyday lives…read more

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