AQA Politics Chapter 3 Key Terms

All the key terms which relate to the third chapter in the AQA Government and Politics AS textbook

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Chapter 3 Key Terms
Disenfranchised millions ­ relates to the vast number of black South Africans who were
denied the vote before majority rule was introduced
Multi party Systems ­ Where several parties compete for power, but no single party is
likely to emerge with an overall majority of seats in the legislature. Such as in Denmark
Majoritarian systems ­ use single member constituencies in which only one representative
is elected to serve the area. The candidate with the majority or plurality(most votes) is
Proportional systems ­ Often known as Proportional representation (PR) use multi-member
constituencies in which a number of representatives are elected to serve a very large area.
These are designed to ensure that the seats a party gains in the legislature broadly reflect its
share of the vote
Popular vote ­ the total number of votes received by a party across the nation
Representative government ­ a political system in which an assembly is elected to represent
the people's wishes
Politics of coalition ­ refers to the situation where no single party has an overall majority in
the legislature, necessitating discussion and compromise in order to form a government with
more than one party
Electoral reform ­ means different things in different countries depending on the system of
election they currently use. Reform of elections means to improve for the better so for
example, Westminster elections to move away to FPTP to another kind such as AV
Members of the `chattering' classes ­ those members of society who enjoy discussion of
politics, social and cultural issues. In politics they are also known as political anoraks
Plant Report (1993) ­ the outcome of an enquiry into the most appropriate electoral
systems for Labour's proposed Scottish parliament, regional assemblies, House of Lords,
Commons and local government. It was chaired by Professor Raymond Plant, hence the name
Supplementary vote (SV) ­ a simple variation of the Alternate Vote. Used to elect local
mayors. If no candidate wins a majority after the first round of voting, the top two candidates
remain, all others are removed and those who had their votes removed have their second
preference vote applied so that one of them ultimately has a majority
Alternate Vote (AV) ­ where the voter simply marks the candidates in order of preference.
If a candidate gets an overall majority, they win the seat. If no one does the bottom
candidate is eliminated and their votes allocated to their second choice. This process
continues until there is a majority
Double ballot ­ where polling is split into two parts, with perhaps a fortnight between the
two election days. If one candidate receives a majority after the first vote they win. If no
candidates have one, the two highest remain for the second vote so there is a majority
Quota ­ determined by the outcome of the formula, calculated by dividing the number of
votes cast by the number of seats plus 1, equalling votes needed to get a seat
Weimar Germany ­ the era of Germany before Hitler started the Third Reich. Government
was based on a highly democratic constitution which used a proportional system for elections
Minority government ­ a government made up of party (usually with the most seats) but
who does not have a majority in the legislature
Mandate ­ the authority of government (as granted by the voters) to carry out its
programme according to the promises of the manifesto

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Single-party government ­ a government made up only of members of one party (The
Labour Administrations of Tony Blair)
Manifesto ­ a document produced early in an election campaign which sets out the ideas,
policy proposals and legislative intentions of a political party and intend to form the basis of
their programme should they win sufficient electoral support to form a government…read more


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