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Changing Urban Environments


· Urbanisation is the process where an increasing
proportion of the population lives in towns and cities (and
there is a reduction in living in rural areas.)
· Rural - urban migration is a process in which people
move from the countryside to towns or cities.…

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CBD's: Central Business district. This is the core of the city
containing shops, offices, entertainment places etc. Site are
expensive becasue of the shortage of space.
Inner City: On the edge of the CBD, housing is often small rented
rooms, crime rates are higher and there are smaller industries…

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Land uses in different cities:
· Places like Sweden and France the CBD is where wealthy
people live and the suburbs is where less wealthy people live
· Land use can change over time - for example,
· In the UK shopping centres have been built in out-of-town
locations which…

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Near to facilities in town centres, e.g. Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can
shops, entertainment and places of be larger
Cuts commuting More space for gardens

Urban Push Factors
· Poor Wages
· Shortage of jobs
· Difficult Conditions
· Ethnic segregation
· Traffic congestion and pollution from…

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· Incentives are used to encourage those who do not need to
live in the city to move out of urban areas.
· For example, the London council encourage the elderly to
move to the seaside and others by paying them money.

Revitalising CBDS

Some CBDS are becoming run down…

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Increased number of buses has led to an increase in passenger
numbers, e.g. on route 69 there has been a 27% increase
11 extra key rail routes for commuters, e.g. the Jewellery line in
operation since 1995
Metro (Light Railway) links Birmingham and Wolverhampton
(20.4km in 35 mins)
The investment…

Page 7

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­ the new Bullring is now one of the newest and largest shopping centres in
the UK.

The new Bullring has had positive and negative effects:

Page 8

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Car Use

· Air pollution (damages health AND buildings)
· Road accidents
· Congestion

· Improve public transport
· Increase car parking charges
· Bus priority lanes
· Pedestrianisation


Variety of ethnic backgrounds in CBD, tend to live in same area

· Same language, religion, background
· Live…

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· As few official jobs available people create own employment,
selling items making and repairing things on a small scale,
becoming couriers cleaners gardeners taking in laundry, they work
long hours for not much pay
· Houses not provided with sanitation, piped water, electricity,
road access
· Houses made…

Page 10

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· Houses are made out of mud, wood and corrugated iron.
· Sewage lines are exposed and run through the houses
(causing disease).
· Rubbish isn't collected.
· No consistent water supply.
· It smells, no privacy and it is cramped.
· Crime - police reluctant to enter slums…




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