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Changing Urban Environments

Urbanisation

· Urbanisation is the process where an increasing
proportion of the population lives in towns and cities (and
there is a reduction in living in rural areas.)
· Rural - urban migration is a process in which people
move from the countryside to towns or cities.…

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·
CBD's: Central Business district. This is the core of the city
containing shops, offices, entertainment places etc. Site are
expensive becasue of the shortage of space.
Inner City: On the edge of the CBD, housing is often small rented
rooms, crime rates are higher and there are smaller industries…

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Land uses in different cities:
· Places like Sweden and France the CBD is where wealthy
people live and the suburbs is where less wealthy people live
· Land use can change over time - for example,
· In the UK shopping centres have been built in out-of-town
locations which…

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Near to facilities in town centres, e.g. Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can
shops, entertainment and places of be larger
work
Cuts commuting More space for gardens




Urban Push Factors
· Poor Wages
· Shortage of jobs
· Difficult Conditions
· Ethnic segregation
· Traffic congestion and pollution from…

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· Incentives are used to encourage those who do not need to
live in the city to move out of urban areas.
· For example, the London council encourage the elderly to
move to the seaside and others by paying them money.

Revitalising CBDS

Some CBDS are becoming run down…

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Increased number of buses has led to an increase in passenger
numbers, e.g. on route 69 there has been a 27% increase
11 extra key rail routes for commuters, e.g. the Jewellery line in
operation since 1995
Metro (Light Railway) links Birmingham and Wolverhampton
(20.4km in 35 mins)
The investment…

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­ the new Bullring is now one of the newest and largest shopping centres in
the UK.

The new Bullring has had positive and negative effects:







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Car Use

· Air pollution (damages health AND buildings)
· Road accidents
· Congestion

· Improve public transport
· Increase car parking charges
· Bus priority lanes
· Pedestrianisation

Cultures

Variety of ethnic backgrounds in CBD, tend to live in same area
because:

· Same language, religion, background
· Live…

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Problems
· As few official jobs available people create own employment,
selling items making and repairing things on a small scale,
becoming couriers cleaners gardeners taking in laundry, they work
long hours for not much pay
· Houses not provided with sanitation, piped water, electricity,
road access
· Houses made…

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Problems:
· Houses are made out of mud, wood and corrugated iron.
· Sewage lines are exposed and run through the houses
(causing disease).
· Rubbish isn't collected.
· No consistent water supply.
· It smells, no privacy and it is cramped.
· Crime - police reluctant to enter slums…

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