AQA Geography - Changing Urban Environments - Full set of notes

Full set of notes -

Case studies include - 





HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Lily
  • Created on: 05-01-13 11:58
Preview of AQA Geography - Changing Urban Environments - Full set of notes

First 220 words of the document:

Changing Urban Environments
· Urbanisation is the process where an increasing
proportion of the population lives in towns and cities (and
there is a reduction in living in rural areas.)
· Rural - urban migration is a process in which people
move from the countryside to towns or cities.
· Reasons for migration out of rural areas are called push
factors, some of these include:
· Limited transport,
· lack of food and water,
· poor housing, no health care,
· lack of sanitation,
· poor quality of life,
· lack of infrastructure, flooding,
· drought,
· high crime rates,
· war, poor
· education.
· Reasons for migrating to cities are called pull factors,
some of these include:
· Employment,
· better quality of life,
· more use of facilities eg. schools and hospitals,
· better access to food and water,
· better housing,
· better infrastructure,
· better education,
· lower crime rates,
· political security,
· lower risk of natural disaster.
Fastest in poor countries
Young people migrate to urban areas for work
They have children there
Better health care there
Burgess Model.
· This is made of 5 stages. It describes the different
areas of a city. From inside out it goes:

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

CBD's: Central Business district. This is the core of the city
containing shops, offices, entertainment places etc. Site are
expensive becasue of the shortage of space.
Inner City: On the edge of the CBD, housing is often small rented
rooms, crime rates are higher and there are smaller industries such
as printing, garages etc.
Inner Suburbs: Terraced housing that wsas built for people working
near the city centre.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Land uses in different cities:
· Places like Sweden and France the CBD is where wealthy
people live and the suburbs is where less wealthy people live
· Land use can change over time - for example,
· In the UK shopping centres have been built in out-of-town
locations which have forced shops in CBD to close down
· Housing estates in the inner city have replaced tower blocks
Greenfield Site Brownfield Site
-Never been built on before - Redeveloped site
-Building ruins the environment…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

Near to facilities in town centres, e.g. Land cheaper on outskirts so plots can
shops, entertainment and places of be larger
Cuts commuting More space for gardens
Urban Push Factors
· Poor Wages
· Shortage of jobs
· Difficult Conditions
· Ethnic segregation
· Traffic congestion and pollution from cars
· Poor housing/low standards of living
· Unhappy life with few personal privileges
More Housing
Some richer countries (UK) have housing shortages in urban areas
these are how they are solved and tackled:
1.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Incentives are used to encourage those who do not need to
live in the city to move out of urban areas.
· For example, the London council encourage the elderly to
move to the seaside and others by paying them money.
Revitalising CBDS
Some CBDS are becoming run down due to other out-of-town
shopping centres and business parks, which have cheaper rent and
are easier to drive to.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Increased number of buses has led to an increase in passenger
numbers, e.g. on route 69 there has been a 27% increase
11 extra key rail routes for commuters, e.g. the Jewellery line in
operation since 1995
Metro (Light Railway) links Birmingham and Wolverhampton
(20.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Bullring is now one of the newest and largest shopping centres in
the UK.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Car Use
· Air pollution (damages health AND buildings)
· Road accidents
· Congestion
· Improve public transport
· Increase car parking charges
· Bus priority lanes
· Pedestrianisation
Variety of ethnic backgrounds in CBD, tend to live in same area
· Same language, religion, background
· Live near place of worship
· Same ethnic group restricted for a reason, e.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

· As few official jobs available people create own employment,
selling items making and repairing things on a small scale,
becoming couriers cleaners gardeners taking in laundry, they work
long hours for not much pay
· Houses not provided with sanitation, piped water, electricity,
road access
· Houses made of any materials nearby ­ corrugated iron,
pieces of board, haphazardly assembled to provide basic shelter,
simple layout may have sleeping area separate from living area
· Very overcrowded area
· No toilets
· Water…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

· Houses are made out of mud, wood and corrugated iron.
· Sewage lines are exposed and run through the houses
(causing disease).
· Rubbish isn't collected.
· No consistent water supply.
· It smells, no privacy and it is cramped.
· Crime - police reluctant to enter slums
Inhabitants help:
Self help youth group -
· waste collection & recycling
· car wash
· youth theatre
· sports clubs
· local business'
Local Authority schemes:
· Local authorities provide building materials e.g.…read more



Thank you! This is exactly what I needed!

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all resources »