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Structure of the Earth and Evidence for Plate Movement

Evidence for plate movement:

Why earthquakes and volcanoes are
located in specific places.
Match in shape between South
America and Africa.
Similar rocks and fossils on both sides
of the Atlantic ocean, including land animals
that would be unable to swim.…

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long ridges. If it happens under water mid-oceanic ridge formation occurs such as the mid-Atlantic ridge.

Small earthquakes: the earthquakes that form at constructive plate boundaries are mostly small.

Conservative Boundaries ­ diagram ­ features found

Conservative plate boundaries are where the
2 plates are moving in opposite directions.


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more built up through tourism, the space available to farmers decreases so they have to
design new methods of farming, such as introducing vineyards or providing campsites for
tourists to help boost their income.
o The greater overall usage of the Alps has meant that communication links, e.g. roads, has…

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Case Study: Yellowstone National Park

When considering the Yellowstone supervolcano, one of, if not the largest supervolcano in the World, the
effects could be catastrophic and change the face of the planet as we know it. Currently, there are 3,000
earthquakes in the area each year and along with various…

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Once Chances Peak had woken up it then remained active for five years. The most intense eruptions
occurred in 1997.

During this time, Montserrat was devastated by pyroclastic flows. The small population of the island (11,000
people) was evacuated in 1995 to the north of Montserrat as well as to…

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The Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken up into huge tectonic plates. Where these meet, the Earth's
crust becomes unstable and earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.

Earthquakes cause damage to buildings, and often lead to loss of life. It is difficult to predict exactly when
an earthquake might…

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3.5 2.5 cm/s2 II
4.2 III
4.5 10 cm/s2 IV
4.8 25 cm/s2 V
5.4 50 cm/s2 VI
6.1 100 cm/s2 VII
6.5 250 cm/s2 VIII
6.9 IX
7.3 500 cm/s2 X
8.1 750 cm/s XI
> 8.1 980 cm/s2 XII
The Richter scale for earthquake measurements is logarithmic.…

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7.2 on the Richter scale.



Buildings destroyed by fire when the gas mains fractured.
316000 people left homeless and refugees moved into temporary housing.


35000 people injured.
Buildings and bridges collapsed despite their earthquake proof design.


Short term:

People were evacuated and emergency rations provided.

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Rivers blocked causing flooding
Predicted cost of 75 million dollars


Short term-

Helicopters assigned for resuing people as the roads were blocked
Soldiers parachuted in
Increase in production of tents
Land flattened for tents
Overall slow response

Long term-

Asked for help on the 14th may.
$1 million…

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What to do

Tsunami ­ how and why?

A tsunami is a huge wave, usually caused by volcanic or earthquake activity under the ocean, which can
eventually crash onto the shoreline. The effects on a community can be devastating.

What causes a tsunami?

When an earthquake, volcano or landslide happens…




i found it very useful for my mocks. thanks very much

Mr A Gibson


Cause, effect, impact and the importance of scale and time. All the notes you need for your revision of this topic.



This was very helpful-thank you

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