AQA gcse geography restless earth notes

Revision guide on common features of spoken discourse, as part of AS English Language for A Level. Hope it's helpful! :)

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  • Created on: 05-05-13 16:22
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Structure of the Earth and Evidence for Plate Movement
Evidence for plate movement:
Why earthquakes and volcanoes are
located in specific places.
Match in shape between South
America and Africa.
Similar rocks and fossils on both sides
of the Atlantic ocean, including land animals
that would be unable to swim.
Destructive Boundaries
Destructive plate boundaries are where the 2
plates are pushing together.
Fold Mountains- and area of sea separates two plates.
Sediments settle in geosynclines. The sediments gradually
compress into sedimentary rock. When the two plates
move together the layers of sedimentary rock become
folded or crumpled. Eventually they appear above sea
level as a range of Fold Mountains. These occur at
destructive boundaries between 2 continental crusts.
Oceanic trench- the oceanic crust is
much denser than the newer
continental crust. As they push together the oceanic crust is
subducted under forming a subduction zone. An oceanic trench is
formed at the join.
Composite Volcanoes- as the oceanic crust is subducted; it
melts due to the friction. The melted magma pushes up through
weaknesses in the continental crust. When it reaches the
top a volcano is formed.
Earthquakes- earthquakes occur when a build-up of pressure occurs at the subduction zone. Eventually the
pressure is released and an earthquake is formed.
Constructive Boundaries
Constructive plate boundaries are when the 2 plates
are moving apart.
Shield volcano- as the 2 plates pull apart magma
wells up out of the gap. these form shield volcanoes in

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If it happens under water mid-oceanic ridge formation occurs such as the mid-Atlantic ridge.
Small earthquakes: the earthquakes that form at constructive plate boundaries are mostly small.
Conservative Boundaries ­ diagram ­ features found
Conservative plate boundaries are where the
2 plates are moving in opposite directions.
Earthquakes- earthquakes often occur at
conservative plate boundaries because as the
2 plates push against each other pressure
builds up. Eventually it is released, and this
forms and earthquake.…read more

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The greater overall usage of the Alps has meant that communication links, e.g. roads, has
been improved making it easier to move around the Alps and ensure people can live and
work more effectively. Even ski lifts and cable cars can be used to move around both
people and also farmers' animals.…read more

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Case Study: Yellowstone National Park
When considering the Yellowstone supervolcano, one of, if not the largest supervolcano in the World, the
effects could be catastrophic and change the face of the planet as we know it. Currently, there are 3,000
earthquakes in the area each year and along with various other changes, it has led scientists to worry that an
eruption could occur soon, although this is very unlikely. An eruption in the next couple of centuries is not
expected.…read more

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Once Chances Peak had woken up it then remained active for five years. The most intense eruptions
occurred in 1997.
During this time, Montserrat was devastated by pyroclastic flows. The small population of the island (11,000
people) was evacuated in 1995 to the north of Montserrat as well as to neighbouring islands and the UK.
Despite the evacuations, 19 people were killed by the eruptions as a small group of people chose to stay
behind to watch over their crops.…read more

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The Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken up into huge tectonic plates. Where these meet, the Earth's
crust becomes unstable and earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Earthquakes cause damage to buildings, and often lead to loss of life. It is difficult to predict exactly when
an earthquake might happen and how bad it will be, even in places that are known for having earthquakes.…read more

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4.2 III
4.5 10 cm/s2 IV
4.8 25 cm/s2 V
5.4 50 cm/s2 VI
6.1 100 cm/s2 VII
6.5 250 cm/s2 VIII
6.9 IX
7.3 500 cm/s2 X
8.1 750 cm/s XI
> 8.1 980 cm/s2 XII
The Richter scale for earthquake measurements is logarithmic. This means that each whole number step
represents a ten-fold increase in measured amplitude.…read more

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Richter scale.
Buildings destroyed by fire when the gas mains fractured.
316000 people left homeless and refugees moved into temporary housing.
35000 people injured.
Buildings and bridges collapsed despite their earthquake proof design.
Short term:
People were evacuated and emergency rations provided.
Rescue teams searched for survivors for 10 days.
Long term:
many people moved away from the area permanently.
Jobs were created in the construction industry as part of a rebuilding programme.…read more

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Rivers blocked causing flooding
Predicted cost of 75 million dollars
Short term-
Helicopters assigned for resuing people as the roads were blocked
Soldiers parachuted in
Increase in production of tents
Land flattened for tents
Overall slow response
Long term-
Asked for help on the 14th may.
$1 million in rebuild funds
Temporary home built
Debts written off.…read more

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What to do
Tsunami ­ how and why?
A tsunami is a huge wave, usually caused by volcanic or earthquake activity under the ocean, which can
eventually crash onto the shoreline. The effects on a community can be devastating.
What causes a tsunami?
When an earthquake, volcano or landslide happens on the ocean floor, water is displaced. This water forms
the start of the tsunami.…read more



i found it very useful for my mocks. thanks very much

Mr A Gibson

Cause, effect, impact and the importance of scale and time. All the notes you need for your revision of this topic.

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