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Chemistry C2 Condensed Notes
C2 Topic 1&2: Structure, Bonding and Properties
Simple particle theory is developed in this unit to include atomic
structure and bonding. The arrangement of electrons in atoms can be
used to explain what happens when elements react and how atoms join
together to form different types…

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molecules such as H2, Cl2, O2, HCl, H2O, NH3 and CH4. Represent the
covalent bonds in molecules such as water, ammonia, hydrogen,
hydrogen chloride, methane and oxygen, and in giant structures such as
diamond and silicon dioxide, as shown in the diagram: Substances that
consist of simple molecules are gases,…

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delocalised electrons in their structures. Candidates should know that
conduction depends on the ability of electrons to move throughout the
metal. The layers of atoms in metals are able to slide over each other
and so metals can be bent and shaped. Alloys are usually made from
two or more…

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C3 Topic 3: How Much?
Atoms can be represented as shown in this
example:


The relative masses of protons, neutrons and
electrons are:

The total number of protons and neutrons in an
atom is called its mass number.
Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons;
these…

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gas chromatography allows the separation of a mixture of compounds
the time taken for a substance to travel through the column can be used to
help identify the substance
the output from the gas chromatography column can be linked to a mass
spectrometer, which can be used to identify the…

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development, advantages and disadvantages of using catalysts in
industrial processes.

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Energy
Chemical reactions involve energy transfers. Many chemical reactions
involve the release of energy. For other chemical reactions to occur,
energy must be supplied. When chemical reactions occur, energy is
transferred to or from the surroundings.
An exothermic reaction is one that transfers energy to the
surroundings. Examples of exothermic…

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C2 Topic 5: Salts and Electrolysis
Soluble salts can be made from acids and insoluble salts can be made from
solutions of ions.
Select an appropriate method for making a salt, given appropriate
information.
The state symbols in equations are (s), ( l ) , (g) and (aq).
Soluble salts…

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Electrolysis
Ionic compounds have many uses and can provide other substances.
Electrolysis is used to produce alkalis and elements such as aluminium,
chlorine and hydrogen. Oxidation­reduction reactions do not just
involve oxygen.
predict the products of electrolysing solutions of ions.
explain and evaluate processes that use the principles described in…

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