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Chemistry GCSE C1 Condensed
Notes
C1 Topic 1: Fundamental Ideas
All substances are made of atoms. A substance that is made of only one sort of atom is called an element.
There are about 100 different elements. Elements are shown in the periodic table. The groups contain
elements with similar…

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C1 Topic 2: Limestone
Rocks provide essential building materials. Limestone is a naturally occurring resource that provides a
starting point for the manufacture of cement and concrete. Consider and evaluate the environmental,
social and economic effects of exploiting limestone and producing building materials from it .Candidates
should know that limestone…

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Aluminium
Low density and resistance to corrosion make aluminium and titanium useful metals.
Aluminium and titanium are useful metals but are expensive to produce.
Aluminium and titanium cannot be extracted from their oxides by reduction with carbon.
Current methods of extraction are expensive because:
there are many stages in the…

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viscosity
flammability.
Fuels
Some properties of hydrocarbons depend on the size of their molecules. These properties influence how
hydrocarbons are used as fuels.
Most fuels, including coal, contain carbon and/or hydrogen and may also contain some sulfur. The gases
released into the atmosphere when a fuel burns may include carbon…

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Polymers have many useful applications and new uses are being
developed, for example: new packaging materials, waterproof coatings for fabrics, dental polymers,
wound dressings, hydrogels, smart materials (including shape memory polymers). Many polymers are
not biodegradable, so they are not broken down by microbes and this can lead to problems…

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C1 Topic 7: Earth and Atmosphere
The Earth consists of a core, mantle and crust, and is surrounded by the atmosphere. The Earth's crust
and the upper part of the mantle are cracked into a number of large pieces (tectonic plates). Convection
currents within the Earth's mantle driven by heat…

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