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The periodic table
Newlands and Mendeleev attempted to classify the elements by arranging them in order of their
atomic weights. Called the periodic table because similar properties occur at regular intervals.

The early periodic table was incomplete and some elements were placed In inappropriate groups if
the strict order of…

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The less reactive the element
The higher its melting point and boiling point

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A more reactive
halogen can displace
a less reactive
halogen from
aqueous solution of
its salt.

The transition
elements have
similar properties
and some special
properties because
the inner shell
is being filled in the
atoms of the
elements between
groups 2 and 3. This
is because the third

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with water
or oxygen

Many transition
elements have ions
with different
charges, form
coloured compounds
and are useful
as catalysts.

Acids, alkalis and
Arrhenius- acids H+
Alkalis OH-
Lowry and Bronsted-
base= proton

Acid= proton donor
(moles of acid x C of
alkali x V of alkali) =…

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Water must normally
be present for a
substance to act as
an acid or as a base.
Acids produce
hydrogen ions in
aqueous solution.
The H+ ion is a
proton. In water this
proton is
hydrated and is
represented as
Alkalis produce
hydroxide ions,
OH-(aq), in aqueous
solutions. Acids…

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The volumes of acid and alkali solutions that react with each other can be measured by titration
using a suitable indicator:
strong acid + strong alkali ­ any acid-base indicator
strong acid + weak alkali ­ methyl orange indicator
weak acid + strong alkali ­ phenolphthalein indicator.

If the concentration…

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The solubility of soluble
gases in water increases as
the temperature
decreases and as the

Dissolving CO2 in
water under high
pressure makes
carbonated water.
When the pressure

released, the gas bubbles
out of the solution.
Carbonated water is used
to make fizzy drinks
Dissolved oxygen

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comes into contact with
Can increase costs
because more
soap is needed

When heated it can
produce scale that
reduces the
efficiency of
heating systems
and kettles

Can be good-
calcium compounds
are good for

Hard water can be made
soft by adding sodium
carbonate which reacts


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