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After distillation, both short Products
and long hydrocarbons Alkenes
Short-chain alkanes
Shorter molecules Making Plastics
Why? more useful Fuels like petrol and paraffin (jet fuel)
More long-chain
alkanes like tar
Cracking Crude Oil
Example
Thermal decomposition Molecules split apart
(breaking molecules down (crack) on the surface of
by heating them) the specks of catalyst
How?
1. Heat long-chain hydrocarbon to vaporise it
2. Pass vapour over powdered catalyst like
Aluminium Oxide at 400-700°C…read more

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Hydrocarbons with a
double bond between two Ethene Propene
carbon atoms
Alkenes First 3
What? C=C bond
Unsaturated as double bond Butene
can break and C atoms can
bond with other atoms
Ethene and Fermentation
steam
Ethanol Raw Material Non-renewable Renewable
Ethene reacted Process Continuous Batch (reaction vessel
needs emptying and
with steam refilling)
Ethene + Water Ethanol
Labour Few workers Many workers
C2H4 + H2O C2H5OH
Reaction rate Fast Slow (5-7 days)
300°C, 70atm, Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4)
catalyst
Conditions High temp. and Warm, normal pressure
pressure
Fermentation Purity Single, pure Impure- Ethanol in water-
product needs separating
Sugar Carbon Dioxide + Ethanol
Energy A lot Very little
C6H12 O6 2CO2+ 2C2H5OH
37°C, with yeast…read more

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Joining small molecules with double
bonds (monomers) together to form very
large molecules (polymers)
Polymerisation
e.g. lots of ethene joins to Alkenes are
form (poly)ethene (polythene) monomers
Using Alkenes to Light, stretchable (e.g. Resin tooth Waterproof
make Polymers low density (poly)ethene)
for carrier bags
fillings fabric coatings
Varied by temp. ·(Poly)ethene made at Hydrogel wound
Uses Elastic polymer fibres for
stretchy spandex fibre for tights
and pressure of 200°C, 2000atm is dressings to keep
polymerisation flexible, and low density wounds moist Memory foam- softer when warmer
·(Poly)ethene made at
Physical 60°C, a few atms, with Not biodegradable Stay in landfill sites
catalyst is rigid and for 100's years
Properties dense Develop Can be burnt,
biodegradable producing
useful energy
·Poly(ethanol) forms slime polymers Disposal
when mixed with sodium
Depends Burning gives
tetroborate. Reduce over packaging
on of toxic fumes
·The more concentrated the Material
sodium tetroborate is the Hard to Some is recycled, but
more viscous the slime is. separate only if thermosoftening…read more

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Oil can be extracted from
fruits, seeds and nuts Oils can be extracted, Provide a lot Nutrients like
for food or fuel of energy vitamin E
Extracting oils from plants Distil to
Seeds and nuts remove Vegetable oils in food
Fruits solvent
Spin, then Crush seeds/nuts
Crush fruit pour off oil Minerals Essential fatty
acids, for metabolic
Add suitable Filter processes
Filter solvent and agitate
Plant Oils and Emulsions
Emulsions
· Oils don't dissolve in water
· But they can be mixed with an emulsifier, to make an emulsion
· Emulsions are droplets of one liquid, suspended in another
· Emulsions are thicker than either oil or water
· The more oil in an oil-in-water emulsion, the thicker it is.
· Useful for food e.g. mayonnaise, milk
· Also useful for other products like moisturising lotions
· Whipped cream and ice cream are oil-in-water emulsions, also with air…read more

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Veg oils like rapeseed and Veg oil provides
soybean can be processed a lot of energy
and used as fuels Biodiesel is
particularly
Vegetable Oil Fuels useful
Engine
produces 90% Can be used in a diesel
as much power However, often engine, most can run on
mixed with 100% biodiesel
ordinary diesel
Extracting and Using Plant Oils
Comes from plant
crops-renewable Releases less particulates
(little bits of solid stuff in We can't make Can be made from
smoke and car exhausts) enough as there aren't used vegetable oil, but
enough veg oil crops still not enough
Better than ordinary Positives
diesel from crude oil, Negatives
which will run out
Produces less sulfur More expensive, so Still fewer
dioxide pollution people don't want drawbacks than
Release same amount of CO2 to use it other "green" fuels
as petrol or diesel, but the plants like biogas and
it came from took this in, so it is electricity
"Carbon Neutral"…read more

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