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Class differences in achievement
1. What is the popular explanation for class differences in achievement?

2. What is cultural deprivation?

3. What are the three main aspects of cultural deprivation?

4. What does Douglas see as the reason why working-class pupils scored lower on tests of ability than
middle-class pupils?…

Page 2

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11. What does Hyman believe the values and beliefs of lower-class subculture are to educational success?

12. What are the four features of the working-class subculture that Sugarman sees as a barrier to
educational achievement?

13. What is compensatory education?

14. Name one example of a compensatory education scheme and…

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22. Name one way in which poor housing can have a direct impact on pupils' achievement

23. Name one way in which poor housing can have an indirect impact on pupils' achievement

24. How can a lack of financial support affect children from poorer families?

25. What does Bull call…

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32. Describe what Leech and Campos mean by `selection by mortgage'

33. What type of students did Sullivan find to have the greatest cultural capital?

34. How does Sullivan explain the remainder of the class gap in achievement, apart from cultural capital

35. Name and describe the types of parents…

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43. How does Jacobson and Rosenthal's experiment show a self-fulfilling prophecy?

44. What is a pupil subculture?

45. What two concepts does Lacey use to explain how pupil subcultures develop?

46. What sort of pupils tend to form a pro-school subculture according to Lacey?

47. What does Hargreaves argue is…

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53. What does Bartlett claim marketisation has lead popular schools to do?

54. What does Walford identify about CTC's in relation to their image to parents?

55. What does Ball claim schools do in regards to marketing themselves

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