AQA Geography - Energy Content

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  • Created by: Catherine
  • Created on: 01-04-13 12:38

Fossil Fuels.

Fossil Fuelsare non renewable source of energy that formed millions of years ago. 

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Natrual Gas
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Coal.

Coal:

  • During carboniferous period 
  • Forest grew in peat bogs
  • Tress died but did not rot (burried in the bogs) -> preserved
  • Over time layers of rock on top compressed the material = moisture squeezed out

= Coal.

  • Shaft mines: used to get coal deep underground.
  • Opencast method: quarries used if coal is closed to surface

Example: Hilly areas thought the UK eg. Pennines, Wales, Highlands.

Example: New Zealand 2010 coal mine explosion.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-11860173

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Oil.

Oil:

  • Microscopic sea creatures died
  • Buried by layers of sediment
  • Sedminets are heavy and compress the remains of sea creatures
  • Heat and pressure turn the organic material into oil
  • This percolates through the rock in the ground towards the surface
  • If trapped by a layer of impermeable rock above = oil reservoir

Example: North Sea, off the coast of Scotland

Example: BP oil spill, 2010

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deepwater_Horizon_oil_spill

http://www.marine-knowledge.com/general/marine-pipelines.html

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Natural Gas.

Natural Gas:

  • Forms at the same time as oil
  • It is lighter = lies on top of oil
  • Both Oil and natural gas extracted by drilling deep underground

Problems:

  • Fossil Fuels are running out = 50 years left
  • increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere = global warming
  • Contains impurities = acid rain
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Acid Rain.

Acid Rain:

  • Sulphur Dioxide and nitrogen oxides produced by burning fossil fuels.
  • Reacts with moisture in the air = acid rain
  • sunlight increases the rate of these reactions

Problems:

  • 1980s major crisis in Europe and North/East America = loss of forest/ decile of fish stock/ damaged buildings and health.
  • Prevailing winds blow compounds for miles

Solutions:

  • Catalytic converters reduce emissions from cars
  • liming
  • 1988 EU legislation called 'Large Combustion Plants Directive' 


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Renewable Energy.


  • Wood
  • Nuclear Power
  • Biomass/ Biofuel
  • Solar Power
  • Wind Power
  • Tidal Power
  • Wave Power
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Wood.

Wood:

Burned for fuel/ heating/ cooking

Problems:

  • Deforestation
  • Reduced interception from rain
  • Soil mouisture and nutrients washed way
  • Carbon dioxide = Global Warming

Case Study: Burkind Faso, Sahel

  • 90% energy for cooking = wood
  • Consumption greater than growth of trees
  • Alternative fuels expensive
  • http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/features/2011/07/2011713124523327727.html
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Nuclear Power.

Nuclear Power:

  • Evenly distibuted - not politics.
  • Fuel efficient 
  • 20% of UK Energy
  • no reactions since 1980

Problems:

  • Waste disposal
  • Vunerable to terrosist attacks 

Caste Study: Chernobyl, Ukraine 

  • Nuclear disarster 1986
  • 1500 deaths
  • radiation poisioning = birth defects/ cancer 
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Biomass.

Biomass:

  • More variety of crops
  • Carbon neutral
  • Cheap
  • idependant growing 

Problems:

  • land lost -> biomass produce 
  • Less food -> increase prices 
  • monoculture 
  • big impacts of fertiliser/ pesticides

Case Study: Brazil

  • World leader
  • Use equivalent of 7 million tonnes of oil/per year 
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Solar Power.

Solar Power:

  • Solar voltaic (PV) cells 
  • Daylight -> energy (no need for sunshine - although it increases energy)

Problems:

  • Waste disposal
  • Expensive
  • Unsightly
  • Hot countries = efficient

Case Study: California, USA

  • Solar power since 1980s
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Wind Power.

Wind Power:

  • 60% of worlds wind power in Europe (on shore/ off shore)

Problems:

  • expensive
  • Unreliable long-term
  • Sporadic nature of wind
  • Unsightly

Case Study: London Array Project

  • 341 turbines over 4 years
  • off shore and on shore
  • power for 750,000 homes
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Tidal Power.

Tidal Power:

  • Still in experimentation in UK

Problems:

  • Expensive

Case Study: Severn barrage, UK

  • 15 billion
  • 16km (10 miles) between Wales and Uk
  • Acts as a bridge.
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Wave Power.

Wave Power:

  • Floats in the sea
  • More waves that go up and down (kenetic energy) = more efficient

Problems:

  • Expensive

Case Study: Isle of Islay, UK

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Trade and Geopolitics.

Oil:

Some countries have large supply of oil, others do not. Therefore they are reliant on importing from other countries.

  • Demand for oil is increasing because of increasing pop./industrialistaion/ development
  • 2/3 world's oil found in Middle East
  • Conflicts within the Middle East (affect trade)
  • Russia has a stock stock of oil.

http://www.bp.com/extendedsectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=5&contentId=7044157

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Case Study: Russia and Ukraine

Case Study: Russia and Ukraine:

  • During the 1980s/90s there were many TNCs in Russia
  • 2000 Putin took control of oil -> kicked out TNCs
  • Oil development for 20% of Russias GDP
  • 60+% of export profit 
  • 30% of foreign investments in Russia
  • Countries dependant for Oil and Gas -> Russia can have control and manipulat its power
  • Power over pipelines/tanks -> can cut off to a country easily
  • 2006 Ukriane voted a political party (Russia did not like) = Ukraines gas cut off.
  • Supplies to Europe were affected also. 
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