Fossil Fuels: are non renewable source of energy that formed millions of years ago.
- Natrual Gas
- During carboniferous period
- Forest grew in peat bogs
- Tress died but did not rot (burried in the bogs) -> preserved
- Over time layers of rock on top compressed the material = moisture squeezed out
- Shaft mines: used to get coal deep underground.
- Opencast method: quarries used if coal is closed to surface
Example: Hilly areas thought the UK eg. Pennines, Wales, Highlands.
Example: New Zealand 2010 coal mine explosion.
- Microscopic sea creatures died
- Buried by layers of sediment
- Sedminets are heavy and compress the remains of sea creatures
- Heat and pressure turn the organic material into oil
- This percolates through the rock in the ground towards the surface
- If trapped by a layer of impermeable rock above = oil reservoir
Example: North Sea, off the coast of Scotland
Example: BP oil spill, 2010
- Forms at the same time as oil
- It is lighter = lies on top of oil
- Both Oil and natural gas extracted by drilling deep underground
- Fossil Fuels are running out = 50 years left
- increased carbon dioxide in atmosphere = global warming
- Contains impurities = acid rain
- Sulphur Dioxide and nitrogen oxides produced by burning fossil fuels.
- Reacts with moisture in the air = acid rain
- sunlight increases the rate of these reactions
- 1980s major crisis in Europe and North/East America = loss of forest/ decile of fish stock/ damaged buildings and health.
- Prevailing winds blow compounds for miles
- Catalytic converters reduce emissions from cars
- 1988 EU legislation called 'Large Combustion Plants Directive'
- Nuclear Power
- Biomass/ Biofuel
- Solar Power
- Wind Power
- Tidal Power
- Wave Power
Burned for fuel/ heating/ cooking
- Reduced interception from rain
- Soil mouisture and nutrients washed way
- Carbon dioxide = Global Warming
Case Study: Burkind Faso, Sahel
- 90% energy for cooking = wood
- Consumption greater than growth of trees
- Alternative fuels expensive
- Evenly distibuted - not politics.
- Fuel efficient
- 20% of UK Energy
- no reactions since 1980
- Waste disposal
- Vunerable to terrosist attacks
Caste Study: Chernobyl, Ukraine
- Nuclear disarster 1986
- 1500 deaths
- radiation poisioning = birth defects/ cancer
- More variety of crops
- Carbon neutral
- idependant growing
- land lost -> biomass produce
- Less food -> increase prices
- big impacts of fertiliser/ pesticides
Case Study: Brazil
- World leader
- Use equivalent of 7 million tonnes of oil/per year
- Solar voltaic (PV) cells
- Daylight -> energy (no need for sunshine - although it increases energy)
- Waste disposal
- Hot countries = efficient
Case Study: California, USA
- Solar power since 1980s
- 60% of worlds wind power in Europe (on shore/ off shore)
- Unreliable long-term
- Sporadic nature of wind
Case Study: London Array Project
- 341 turbines over 4 years
- off shore and on shore
- power for 750,000 homes
- Still in experimentation in UK
Case Study: Severn barrage, UK
- 15 billion
- 16km (10 miles) between Wales and Uk
- Acts as a bridge.
- Floats in the sea
- More waves that go up and down (kenetic energy) = more efficient
Case Study: Isle of Islay, UK
Trade and Geopolitics.
Some countries have large supply of oil, others do not. Therefore they are reliant on importing from other countries.
- Demand for oil is increasing because of increasing pop./industrialistaion/ development
- 2/3 world's oil found in Middle East
- Conflicts within the Middle East (affect trade)
- Russia has a stock stock of oil.
Case Study: Russia and Ukraine
Case Study: Russia and Ukraine:
- During the 1980s/90s there were many TNCs in Russia
- 2000 Putin took control of oil -> kicked out TNCs
- Oil development for 20% of Russias GDP
- 60+% of export profit
- 30% of foreign investments in Russia
- Countries dependant for Oil and Gas -> Russia can have control and manipulat its power
- Power over pipelines/tanks -> can cut off to a country easily
- 2006 Ukriane voted a political party (Russia did not like) = Ukraines gas cut off.
- Supplies to Europe were affected also.