AQA Psychology Attachment revision pack c(omplete)

Complete revision pack for AQA Psychology - Attachment, Year 1 of A2 exams. 

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AQA A LEVEL
PSYCHOLOGY
ATTACHMENT REVISION
NOTES

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CHAPTER CONTENTS
Introduction to attachment
Schaffer's stages of
attachment
Animal stages of attachment
Learning theory of attachment
Bowlby's theory of attachment
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
Cultural variations in
attachment
Bowlby's theory of maternal
deprivation
Romanian orphan studies
Influence of early attachment
on later relationships…read more

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INTRODUCTION TO ATTACHMENT:
RECIPROCITY
Reciprocity: A description of how two people
interact. Motherinfant interaction is reciprocal
in that both infant and mother respond to each
other's signals and each elicits a response from
the other.
Feldman and Eidelman (2007) found that
mothers typically pick up on and respond to
infant alertness around twothirds of the time.
Feldman (2007) found that from around three
months of age, these interactions tend to be
more frequent and involve close attention to
each other's verbal signals and facial
expressions.…read more

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INTRODUCTION TO ATTACHMENT:
RECIPROCITY EVALUATION
It is hard to know what is happening when
observing infants: Gratier (2003) said that many
studies involving observation of interactions
show the same patterns of interaction. Since
children are so young, we cannot really know
for certain that behaviours seen in these
studies have meaning.…read more

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INTRODUCTION TO ATTACHMENT:
INTERACTIONAL SYNCHRONY
Interactional Synchrony: Mother and infant
reflect both the actions and emotions of the
other and do this in a coordinated
(synchronised) way.
Meltzoff and Moore (1977) observed the
beginnings of interactional synchrony from as
young as two weeks old. An adult displayed one
of three facial expressions or distinctive
gestures. The child's response was recorded
and identified by independent observers. An
association was found between the
expression/gesture and the response from the
babies.
Isabella et al.…read more

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Controlled observations capture fine detail:
Observations of motherinfant relationships are
usually wellcontrolled procedures, with both
mother and infant being filmed, often from
multiple angles, capturing every emotion. Very
fine aspects of behaviour can be recorder then
repeated, increasing the validity of the
research. The Hawthorne effect is not a big
problem in research into motherinfant
attachments as the infant foes not know they
are being recorded, so are unlikely to change
their behaviour.…read more

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In 75% of
the infants studied, an attachment was formed
with the father by the age of 18 months.
The role of the father: Grossman (2002) carried
out a longitudinal study looking at both
parents' behaviour and its relationship to the
quality of children attachments into their teens.
Quality of infant attachment with mothers but
not fathers was related to children's
attachments in adolescence, suggesting that
father attachment is less important.…read more

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Golombok (2004) found that children growing
up in singleparent families do not develop any
differently to children who grow up in
twoparent families. This would seem to
suggest that the father's role in attachment is
not important.
Inconsistent findings on fathers: On one hand,
some psychologists are interested in the role
fathers have as secondary attachment figures,
whereas others are interested in seeing the
father as a primary attachment figure.…read more

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SCHAFFER'S STAGES OF ATTACHMENT:
SCHAFFER AND EMERSON (1964)
Method:
o 60 babies (31 male, 29 female).
o All from Glasgow, majority from skilled working class
families.
o Babies and their mothers were visited at home every
month for the first year and again at 18 months.
o Researchers asked the mothers questions about the
kind of protests the baby showed at seven everyday
separations (separation anxiety).
o Researchers also studied the level of stranger anxiety
within the babies.…read more

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