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AQA A LEVEL
PSYCHOLOGY
ATTACHMENT REVISION
NOTES






















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CHAPTER CONTENTS
Introduction to attachment
Schaffer's stages of
attachment
Animal stages of attachment
Learning theory of attachment
Bowlby's theory of attachment
Ainsworth's Strange Situation
Cultural variations in
attachment
Bowlby's theory of maternal
deprivation
Romanian orphan studies
Influence of early attachment
on later relationships

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INTRODUCTION TO ATTACHMENT:
RECIPROCITY
Reciprocity: A description of how two people
interact. Motherinfant interaction is reciprocal
in that both infant and mother respond to each
other's signals and each elicits a response from
the other.
Feldman and Eidelman (2007) found that
mothers typically pick up on and respond to
infant…

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INTRODUCTION TO ATTACHMENT:
RECIPROCITY EVALUATION
It is hard to know what is happening when
observing infants: Gratier (2003) said that many
studies involving observation of interactions
show the same patterns of interaction. Since
children are so young, we cannot really know
for certain that behaviours seen in these
studies have…

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INTRODUCTION TO ATTACHMENT:
INTERACTIONAL SYNCHRONY
Interactional Synchrony: Mother and infant
reflect both the actions and emotions of the
other and do this in a coordinated
(synchronised) way.
Meltzoff and Moore (1977) observed the
beginnings of interactional synchrony from as
young as two weeks old. An adult displayed one
of three…

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Controlled observations capture fine detail:
Observations of motherinfant relationships are
usually wellcontrolled procedures, with both
mother and infant being filmed, often from
multiple angles, capturing every emotion. Very
fine aspects of behaviour can be recorder then
repeated, increasing the validity of the
research. The Hawthorne effect is not a big…

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weeks formed secondary attachments to other
family members including the father. In 75% of
the infants studied, an attachment was formed
with the father by the age of 18 months.
The role of the father: Grossman (2002) carried
out a longitudinal study looking at both
parents' behaviour and its relationship…

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Golombok (2004) found that children growing
up in singleparent families do not develop any
differently to children who grow up in
twoparent families. This would seem to
suggest that the father's role in attachment is
not important.
Inconsistent findings on fathers: On one hand,
some psychologists are interested in the…

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SCHAFFER'S STAGES OF ATTACHMENT:
SCHAFFER AND EMERSON (1964)
Method:
o 60 babies (31 male, 29 female).
o All from Glasgow, majority from skilled working class
families.
o Babies and their mothers were visited at home every
month for the first year and again at 18 months.
o Researchers asked the…

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A really good booklet with a few mistakes on page 12 it is meant to be 29% instead of 79%

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