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Coastal Environments
The Coastal System
The coast is an open system because inputs are received and outputs are transferred.
Inputs consist of:
Energy provided by waves, wind, tides and currents. There are spatial variations (strength of wind, fetch,
number/intensity of storms, etc.) and temporal variations (midlatitude depressions, hurricane, etc.) of…

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Coastal Environments
Spring Tides Neap Tides
The Sun and moon are aligned with the Earth The Sun and moon form right angles with the Earth
There's an increase in gravitational attraction The Sun's attraction partly counterbalances that of
Creates a higher high tide and a lower low ride, the moon…

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Coastal Environments
Storm Surges:

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Coastal Environments
Coastal Processes
Marine Processes ­ processes operating upon a coastline that are connected with the sea, such as waves, tides and
longshore drift

Subaerial Processes ­ processes operating on the land but affecting the shape of the coastline, such as
weathering, mass movement and runoff

Marine Erosion

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Coastal Environments

Transportation and Deposition:
Type of Transportation Description
Traction Large stones and boulders are rolled along the river bed. Usually at high discharge
and high energy levels
Saltation Small stones are lifted up by the current and are bounced along the river bed . Usually
at high energy levels…

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Coastal Environments
Runoff is when large quantities of load is removed at times of flood by water. It may take the form of a stream
emerging from the bay, or it may be a stream cascading over a cliff excavating a Vshaped groove. The presence
off water will also assist…

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Coastal Environments

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Coastal Environments

Landforms of Deposition

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Coastal Environments

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Coastal Environments


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