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River, Floods and Management
Factors Affecting the Storm Hydrograph
Influence Description/Explanation
Precipitatio Intensity and Duration High intensity and long duration of storm = infiltration
n of Storm capacity of the soil is exceeded = easily runs off surface =
steep rising limb and higher discharge
Antecedent Rainfall Heavy rain falling on soil which is saturated from a previous
period of wet weather = steep rising limb and higher
Rock Rock Types e.g.…read more

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River, Floods and Management
Traction Large stones and boulders are rolled along the river bed. Usually at high discharge
and high energy levels
Saltation Small stones are lifted up by the current and are bounced along the river bed . Usually
at high energy levels
Suspension Small particles (sand and silt) are suspended and carried along in the flow of the river
Solution Dissolved materials are carried and transported within the moving water
A river deposits when there's a decrease in energy .…read more

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River, Floods and Management
Upper Course Middle Course Lower Course
Landforms Small waterfalls Rapids Larger meanders
Rapids Small meanders Levees
Potholes Small floodplains Floodplains
Large boulders
Uneven steep river bed
Size of Material Larger particles Medium sized particles Smaller particles
Erosion Vertical Erosion Hydraulic Lateral Erosion Hydraulic Reduced erosion, some
action and attrition action, attrition lateral erosion on outside of
bends of meanders
Transportation Mostly large bedload of Small bedload traction, Smaller sized bedload of
boulders suspension and suspension and solution pebbles, gravel and sand…read more

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River, Floods and Management
and banks so there will be less friction.…read more

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