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Zones of The Coastline (beaches
and stuff)
Backshore: point between the high water mark and the
landward limit of marine activity (vegetation)- changes
take place during storms
Foreshore: Area between the High Water Mark and the
Low Water Mark-not influenced by storm activity and is
suitable for marine activity
In shore/near shore: point between low water mark and
the point where waves cease to have an impact on the
sea bed (land beneath it)
Offshore ­ the area beyond the point where waves cease
to impact upon the seabed and in which activity is limited
to deposition of sediment.…read more

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Factors affecting the shape of the
coastline coastlines are dynamic environments that undergo continuous
Waves: size, frequency, type, direction to the shore, amount of energy
Type and structure of rock being affected: soft or hard. Clay, chalk. Head
land, stacks, cliffs, beaches
Longshore drift: movement of sediment across the coast as a result of
prevailing winds causing waves to travel certain directions.
Tides: high/low
Sub-arial processes: weathering, surface runoff, mass movement
Depth of offshore water
Climate (hot/cold) and the current weather: (sunny/cloud/storm etc.
Sediment offshore: type and amount
Coastal ecosystems: coral, beaches, saltmarshes, sand dunes
Fetch: distance over sea that a wind blows to generate waves:- long
fetch=large waves
HUMAN ACTIVTY-always able to include this in something.…read more

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Coastal System An open system (inputs & outputs)
Energy to drive system: waves, wind, tides &
-Spatial variation-result from strength of wind, fetch & no./intensity of storms
-Temporal variations: seasonal/daily scales
Sediment: usually comes from rivers in different
types, pebbles, sand, rocks etc.
Changes in sea level
Coastal landforms: erosive & depositional
Accumulations of sediment above the tidal limit
Loss of wave energy…read more

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constructive destructive
Small in height
Slowly steepen when approaching a beach-
Higher waves
Rapidly steepen-plunge down when reach
gently spill onto beach, forming berms beach- making steeper beach profiles
Low frequency-6 - 8 per minute High frequency-10 - 14 per minute
Long wave length-up to 100m Steep formation
Swash loses volume quickly: so more Powerful backwash: very little movement of
material is moved along beach material-backwash moves material back
again…read more

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