AQA A2 Full Notes - Crime & Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods & Theory

Full, detailed and colour coded notes for A2 AQA exams. Notes on Crime and Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods and also Theory. 

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Page 1

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Specification
01 September 2015 07:59
Different theories of ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and
non-Christian religious traditions
· Theories of ideology: Marxist, neo-Marxist, pluralist and feminist accounts; hegemony
· Theories of science: the social construction of knowledge; political, social and economic
contexts of science; theory and observation; falsification;…

Page 2

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Theories of ideology
01 September 2015 07:57
Ideology can be defined as a worldview or a set of ideas and values ­ in other words, a belief
system. These includes religious, political and scientific belief systems. Religion can be difficult
to define, but most definitions are usually based on the…

Page 3

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However, they also have direct experience of exploitation so they partly see through the
capitalist system whilst not rejecting it altogether.
·
Postmodernists such as Pakulski and Waters argue that classes are no longer significant so
there is no longer a dominant class ideology
· Feminists argue that ideology reflects…

Page 4

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Men · are more logical than women · Women are too emotional to hold positions of
responsibility · It is natural for women to take child rearing roles. Radical feminists like Millet
believe men are socialised into having a dominant temperament, however non-ideological
factors such as violence play a part…

Page 5

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Theories of science
01 September 2015 07:58

Science is a belief system.
Comte argued that science is quite a different belief system to political ideologies and religion.
He saw society as passing through 3 stages progressing towards scientific knowledge.
·
Theological stage ­ Religions are dominant, people believe because they…

Page 6

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challenged. The CUDOS norms
Merton, a functionalist, argues that every belief system has a set of norms and values. These
are the norms for science:
Communism ­ scientific knowledge is not private, it must be shared so it can grow.
Universalism ­ scientific knowledge is judged by universal, objective criteria…

Page 7

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knowledge can be influenced by the desires of scientists to have successful careers. Kaplan
distinguished between reconstructed logic ­ what scientists claim to use - and logic in use ­
what they actually use.
Lynch illustrated this by showing how scientists study rats brains and ignored slides that
contradicted theories.…

Page 8

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Theories of religion
01 September 2015 07:58
Substantive definitions Substantive definitions define religion as
a belief in God, or a supernatural.
·
They are exclusive; they ignore beliefs and practices that have similar functions to religion,
without a belief in God. Weber defines religion as "belief in a superior or…

Page 9

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equates to the tribe worship the clan and their society or in other words, themselves.
"Primitive man comes to view society as something sacred because he is utterly dependent on
it".
· Contrary sociologists argue that religion can be dysfunctional for society · Many examples of
religion being used as…

Page 10

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widespread loyalty to the nation state.
· It uses religious images/phrases · Promotes a sense of national identity · Includes all faiths ·
The common 'God' being worshipped is someone who embraces all Americans. In the UK this
equates to Remembrance Sunday.
Beckford (2005) - "It is doubtful that these…

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AQA A2 Full Notes - Crime & Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods & Theory

Full, detailed and colour coded notes for A2 AQA exams. Notes on Crime and Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods and also Theory. 

Pages in this set

Page 1

Preview of page 1
Specification
01 September 2015 07:59
Different theories of ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and
non-Christian religious traditions
· Theories of ideology: Marxist, neo-Marxist, pluralist and feminist accounts; hegemony
· Theories of science: the social construction of knowledge; political, social and economic
contexts of science; theory and observation; falsification;…

Page 2

Preview of page 2
Theories of ideology
01 September 2015 07:57
Ideology can be defined as a worldview or a set of ideas and values ­ in other words, a belief
system. These includes religious, political and scientific belief systems. Religion can be difficult
to define, but most definitions are usually based on the…

Page 3

Preview of page 3
However, they also have direct experience of exploitation so they partly see through the
capitalist system whilst not rejecting it altogether.
·
Postmodernists such as Pakulski and Waters argue that classes are no longer significant so
there is no longer a dominant class ideology
· Feminists argue that ideology reflects…

Page 4

Preview of page 4
Men · are more logical than women · Women are too emotional to hold positions of
responsibility · It is natural for women to take child rearing roles. Radical feminists like Millet
believe men are socialised into having a dominant temperament, however non-ideological
factors such as violence play a part…

Page 5

Preview of page 5
Theories of science
01 September 2015 07:58

Science is a belief system.
Comte argued that science is quite a different belief system to political ideologies and religion.
He saw society as passing through 3 stages progressing towards scientific knowledge.
·
Theological stage ­ Religions are dominant, people believe because they…

Page 6

Preview of page 6
challenged. The CUDOS norms
Merton, a functionalist, argues that every belief system has a set of norms and values. These
are the norms for science:
Communism ­ scientific knowledge is not private, it must be shared so it can grow.
Universalism ­ scientific knowledge is judged by universal, objective criteria…

Page 7

Preview of page 7
knowledge can be influenced by the desires of scientists to have successful careers. Kaplan
distinguished between reconstructed logic ­ what scientists claim to use - and logic in use ­
what they actually use.
Lynch illustrated this by showing how scientists study rats brains and ignored slides that
contradicted theories.…

Page 8

Preview of page 8
Theories of religion
01 September 2015 07:58
Substantive definitions Substantive definitions define religion as
a belief in God, or a supernatural.
·
They are exclusive; they ignore beliefs and practices that have similar functions to religion,
without a belief in God. Weber defines religion as "belief in a superior or…

Page 9

Preview of page 9
equates to the tribe worship the clan and their society or in other words, themselves.
"Primitive man comes to view society as something sacred because he is utterly dependent on
it".
· Contrary sociologists argue that religion can be dysfunctional for society · Many examples of
religion being used as…

Page 10

Preview of page 10
widespread loyalty to the nation state.
· It uses religious images/phrases · Promotes a sense of national identity · Includes all faiths ·
The common 'God' being worshipped is someone who embraces all Americans. In the UK this
equates to Remembrance Sunday.
Beckford (2005) - "It is doubtful that these…

Comments

No comments have yet been made