AQA A2 Full Notes - Crime & Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods & Theory

Full, detailed and colour coded notes for A2 AQA exams. Notes on Crime and Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods and also Theory. 

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01 September 2015 07:59

Different theories of ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and non-Christian
religious traditions
· Theories of ideology: Marxist, neo-Marxist, pluralist and feminist accounts; hegemony
· Theories of science: the social construction of knowledge; political, social and economic contexts
of science; theory and observation; falsification;…

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Theories of ideology
01 September 2015 07:57

Ideology can be defined as a worldview or a set of ideas and values ­ in other words, a belief system.
These includes religious, political and scientific belief systems. Religion can be difficult to define, but
most definitions are usually based on the…

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· Men are more logical than women
· Women are too emotional to hold positions of responsibility
· It is natural for women to take child rearing roles.

Radical feminists like Millet believe men are socialised into having a dominant temperament,
however non-ideological factors such as violence play a part…

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Theories of science
01 September 2015 07:58

Science is a belief system.
Comte argued that science is quite a different belief system to political ideologies and religion. He
saw society as passing through 3 stages progressing towards scientific knowledge.
· Theological stage ­ Religions are dominant, people believe because they…

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knowledge can be influenced by the desires of scientists to have successful careers. Kaplan
distinguished between reconstructed logic ­ what scientists claim to use - and logic in use ­ what
they actually use.
Lynch illustrated this by showing how scientists study rats brains and ignored slides that contradicted

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Theories of religion
01 September 2015 07:58

Substantive definitions
Substantive definitions define religion as a belief in God, or a supernatural.
· They are exclusive; they ignore beliefs and practices that have similar functions to religion,
without a belief in God.
Weber defines religion as "belief in a superior or…

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widespread loyalty to the nation state.
· It uses religious images/phrases
· Promotes a sense of national identity
· Includes all faiths
· The common 'God' being worshipped is someone who embraces all Americans.
In the UK this equates to Remembrance Sunday.

Beckford (2005) - "It is doubtful that these…

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Evidence for this can be found...
· Indian Caste System which is justified by the Hindu religion
· Slavery in southern USA, slaves where made to convert to Christianity as it had a controlling
· Feudal times - divine right of kings meant rulers could claim they were only…

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church tends to support people who have nothing in life.

Feminism and Religion
Feminists believe religion is a patriarchal institution and the religious beliefs function as a patriarchal
ideology that legitimates female subordination.

Evidence of patriarchy
Religious organisations:
· Are mainly male dominated, males have a high position of authority…

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support groups for women.
· We should also note that the position of women is changing: For example;- since 1992 the
Church of England has opened the gate to priesthood for women, and about 1/5th of priests
are female.

· Woodhead criticises for ignoring the `religious feminism'
· Criticised for…


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