AQA A2 Full Notes - Crime & Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods & Theory

Full, detailed and colour coded notes for A2 AQA exams. Notes on Crime and Deviance, Beliefs in Society, Methods and also Theory. 

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Specification
01 September 2015 07:59
Different theories of ideology, science and religion, including both Christian and non-Christian
religious traditions
· Theories of ideology: Marxist, neo-Marxist, pluralist and feminist accounts; hegemony
· Theories of science: the social construction of knowledge; political, social and economic contexts
of science; theory and observation; falsification; paradigms
· Theories of religion: Functionalist, Marxist, neo -Marxist and feminist.
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Theories of ideology
01 September 2015 07:57
Ideology can be defined as a worldview or a set of ideas and values ­ in other words, a belief system.
These includes religious, political and scientific belief systems. Religion can be difficult to define, but
most definitions are usually based on the existence of a supernatural entity or other forces. Two
different approaches have been taken to identify and define religions.
· Substantive definitions ­ Concerned with the content of religion.…read more

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Men are more logical than women
· Women are too emotional to hold positions of responsibility
· It is natural for women to take child rearing roles.
Radical feminists like Millet believe men are socialised into having a dominant temperament,
however non-ideological factors such as violence play a part in maintaining male dominance. Greer
argue that PI is entrenched in society and is reflected in the way women are expected to improve
their physical appearances to attract men.…read more

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Theories of science
01 September 2015 07:58
Science is a belief system.
Comte argued that science is quite a different belief system to political ideologies and religion. He
saw society as passing through 3 stages progressing towards scientific knowledge.
· Theological stage ­ Religions are dominant, people believe because they have faith don't
question beliefs.
· Metaphysical Stage ­ Philosophical beliefs are dominant, people use rationality as a
foundation for their beliefs. Lead to democracy replacing divine right.…read more

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Kaplan
distinguished between reconstructed logic ­ what scientists claim to use - and logic in use ­ what
they actually use.
Lynch illustrated this by showing how scientists study rats brains and ignored slides that contradicted
theories. Scientists look for evidence to confirm their theories and ignore evidence that might falsify
them.
Postmodernism and Science.
According to Lyotard, science involves a metanarrative of progress and control which dominated
western thought in the modernity period.…read more

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Theories of religion
01 September 2015 07:58
Substantive definitions
Substantive definitions define religion as a belief in God, or a supernatural.
· They are exclusive; they ignore beliefs and practices that have similar functions to religion,
without a belief in God.
Weber defines religion as "belief in a superior or supernatural power that is above nature and
cannot be explained scientifically"
Social constructionist definitions
Social constructionists take an interactionist approach, focusing on the meaning of religion to
individuals, and how members of society define religion.…read more

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· It uses religious images/phrases
· Promotes a sense of national identity
· Includes all faiths
· The common 'God' being worshipped is someone who embraces all Americans.
In the UK this equates to Remembrance Sunday.
Beckford (2005) - "It is doubtful that these occasions can compensate for the UK's deep social
divisions and high rate of religious diversity and indifference.…read more

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Evidence for this can be found...
· Indian Caste System which is justified by the Hindu religion
· Slavery in southern USA, slaves where made to convert to Christianity as it had a controlling
influence.
· Feudal times - divine right of kings meant rulers could claim they were only answerable to
God; this helped justify their absolute powers, as they weren't accountable to any person or
group.…read more

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Feminism and Religion
Feminists believe religion is a patriarchal institution and the religious beliefs function as a patriarchal
ideology that legitimates female subordination.…read more

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· We should also note that the position of women is changing: For example;- since 1992 the
Church of England has opened the gate to priesthood for women, and about 1/5th of priests
are female.…read more

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