FULL SET OF UNIT 4 CRIME AND DEVIANCE NOTES FOR A2 AQA SOCIOLOGY WITH EVALUATION AND NAMED SOCIOLOGISTS

FULL SET OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE NOTES FOR A2 AQA SOCIOLOGY WITH EVALUATION AND NAMED SOCIOLOGISTS

Not amazingly concise but its all there :) hope it helps

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Zareena
  • Created on: 08-02-13 23:10
Preview of FULL SET OF UNIT 4 CRIME AND DEVIANCE NOTES FOR A2 AQA SOCIOLOGY WITH EVALUATION AND NAMED SOCIOLOGISTS

First 442 words of the document:

Functionalist views on crime
Emile Durkheim
Durkheim sees crime and deviance as both functional and inevitable. "Crime is normal... an integral
part of all healthy societies".
Crime is inevitable for two reasons, firstly, not everyone is effectively socialised into the shared
norms and values, so some individuals will be prone to deviate. Secondly, there is diversity in modern
societies. Different groups develop their own subculture with distinctive norms and values, so what
the subculture s see as normal, mainstream culture may see as deviant.
For Durkheim, crime fulfils two important positive functions 1. Boundary Maintenance= crime unites
societies members in condemnation of the wrongdoer, for example, the James Bulger murders. 2.
Adaptation= all change begins with an act of deviance and this can be good for society, for example,
action taken by the suffragettes in the early 1900's to get women the vote.
Overall, it is Durkheim's view that neither a very high nor a very low level of crime is desirable as
both indicate some malfunctioning of the social system. Too much crime threatens to tear the bonds
of society apart and too little means that society is repressing and controlling its members too much,
stifling individual freedom and preventing change.
Durkheim explains society's tendency towards anomie as being a result of the fact that people are
becoming increasingly different from one another. This diversity means that the collective conscious
of society is weakened this lead to higher levels of crime and deviance.
Criticisms: although Durkheim claims that a certain amount of crime is needed, he does not offer any
way of determining how much.
Functionalism looks at what functions crime serves for society as a whole but does not recognise
how it may affect individuals or groups within society and crime is not functional for the victim.
Crime does not always promote solidarity. It may have the opposite effect, leading to people
becoming more isolated for example forcing women to stay indoors for fear of attack.
KEY WORDS: 1. Anomie= Normlessness 2. Collective conscience= Shared norms and values
Stanley Cohen
(1972) examines the important role played by the media in the `dramatization of evil'. In his view,
media coverage of crime and deviance often creates `folk devils'.
Kingsley Davis
(1937;1961) argues that prostitution acts as a safety valve for the release of men sexual frustrations
without threatening the monogamous nuclear family.
In addition to this other sociologists have commented that prostitution reduces other crime such as
rape.

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Robert K. Merton
STRAIN THEORY
(1938) Merton, inspired by Durkheim's work, adapted the concept of anomie to explain deviance.
Merton's explanation combines two elements:
1. Structural Factors- society's unequal opportunity structure. 2. Cultural Factors- the strong emphasis
on success goals and the weaker emphasis on using legitimate means to achieve them.
The ideology of the American dream tells American that their society is meritocratic and that anyone
can achieve goals by the legitimate means i.e. studying and working hard.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Merton sees deviance as an individual response to strain ignoring the fact that much deviance is
committed in or by groups, especially among the young. 2. Merton focuses on utilitarian crime
committed for material gain, such as theft or fraud. He largely ignores crimes such as assault or
vandalism, which may have no economic motive.
Status Frustration: Cohen believes that deviance amongst working class boys is due to, anomie in the
middle class dominated school system, cultural deprivation and lack of skills to achieve.…read more

Page 4

Preview of page 4

Here's a taster:

This subculture is
closest to that described by Cohen).
Retreatist Subcultures- in any neighbourhood, not everyone who aspires to be a professional
criminal or a gang leader actually succeeds- just as in the legitimate opportunity structure, not
everyone gets a well-paid job. What becomes of theses `double failures'- those who fail in both the
legitimate and illegitimate opportunity structures? According to Cloward and Ohlin, many turn to a
retreatist subculture based on illegal drug use.…read more

Page 5

Preview of page 5

Here's a taster:

Key Words:
Control theory
HIRSCHI'S SOCIAL BOND THEORY (1996)
Only partly agrees with explanations by some sociologists on crime. He agrees with Durkheim that
social order is based on shared social values BUT radically questions "why most people DO NOT
commit crime?" rather than the dominant question of `why some people commit crime'.
The Control Theory Argument- humans suffer a particular weakness and all have the inclination
through temptation to turn to crime.…read more

Page 6

Preview of page 6

Here's a taster:

Crime is a `natural' outgrowth of capitalist society, with its emphasis on economic
self-interest, greed and personal gain. Crime is a rational response to the competitiveness
and inequality of life in capitalist societies
5. The impression in official statistics that crime is mainly a working class phenomenon is largely
due to the selective application of the law, with crime control focused on the working class.…read more

Page 7

Preview of page 7

Here's a taster:

Paul Gilroy
1980-Conscious deviance among ethnic minority groups- he suggested that crimes committed by
ethnic minorities are frequently conscious and deliberate acts, not just unconscious reactions caused
by structural or economic forces. Ethnic minority crime e.g. (riots in Brixton and Los Angeles) is often a
conscious and organised response to the oppression and racism that minorities experience.
Gilroy used the example of Rastafarians, who believe (Gilroy claims) that white society is corrupt and
oppressive, and wish to replace it with their own image of society.…read more

Page 8

Preview of page 8

Here's a taster:

Cicourel also found that probation officers reinforced this bias as they held the common sense theory
that juvenile delinquency was caused by broken homes, poverty and lax parenting. Therefore they
tended to see youths from such backgrounds as likely to offend in future and were less likely to
support non-custodial sentences for them.
In Cicourel's view, justice is not fixed but negotiable. For example, when a middle-class youth was
arrested, he was less likely to be charged.…read more

Page 9

Preview of page 9

Here's a taster:

This is the process whereby attempts to control deviance actually produce an increase in deviance,
leading to greater attempts at control and still higher levels of deviance.…read more

Page 10

Preview of page 10

Here's a taster:

Argues that the courts treat females more harshly than males when they deviate from gender norms.
For example, double standards- courts punish girls but not boys for premature or promiscuous sexual
activity. `Wayward' girls can end up in care without ever having committed an offence. Women who
do not conform to accepted standards of monogamous heterosexuality and motherhood are
punished more harshly.…read more

Comments

meltowers

Very extensive amount of revision. Great for people like me, where their teacher has lacked in the aided revision area. Really helpful, thank you for helping me pass my exam!

dearsammiie

You forgot Phil Colens - Subculture?

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all resources »