FULL SET OF UNIT 4 CRIME AND DEVIANCE NOTES FOR A2 AQA SOCIOLOGY WITH EVALUATION AND NAMED SOCIOLOGISTS

FULL SET OF CRIME AND DEVIANCE NOTES FOR A2 AQA SOCIOLOGY WITH EVALUATION AND NAMED SOCIOLOGISTS

Not amazingly concise but its all there :) hope it helps

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  • Created by: Zareena
  • Created on: 08-02-13 23:10

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Functionalist views on crime
Emile Durkheim

Durkheim sees crime and deviance as both functional and inevitable. "Crime is normal... an integral
part of all healthy societies".

Crime is inevitable for two reasons, firstly, not everyone is effectively socialised into the shared
norms and values, so some individuals will be prone…

Page 2

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Robert K. Merton

STRAIN THEORY

(1938) Merton, inspired by Durkheim's work, adapted the concept of anomie to explain deviance.
Merton's explanation combines two elements:

1. Structural Factors- society's unequal opportunity structure. 2. Cultural Factors- the strong emphasis
on success goals and the weaker emphasis on using legitimate means to achieve…

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1. Merton sees deviance as an individual response to strain ignoring the fact that much deviance is
committed in or by groups, especially among the young. 2. Merton focuses on utilitarian crime
committed for material gain, such as theft or fraud. He largely ignores crimes such as assault or
vandalism,…

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alternative source of status that they can earn by winning `turf' from rival gangs. (This subculture is
closest to that described by Cohen).

Retreatist Subcultures- in any neighbourhood, not everyone who aspires to be a professional
criminal or a gang leader actually succeeds- just as in the legitimate opportunity structure,…

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(1964) claims that most delinquents are not strongly committed to their subculture, as strain theories
suggest, but merely drift in and out of delinquency.

Key Words:

Control theory
HIRSCHI'S SOCIAL BOND THEORY (1996)

Only partly agrees with explanations by some sociologists on crime. He agrees with Durkheim that
social order…

Page 6

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4. Crime is a `natural' outgrowth of capitalist society, with its emphasis on economic
self-interest, greed and personal gain. Crime is a rational response to the competitiveness
and inequality of life in capitalist societies
5. The impression in official statistics that crime is mainly a working class phenomenon is largely…

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Paul Gilroy

1980-Conscious deviance among ethnic minority groups- he suggested that crimes committed by
ethnic minorities are frequently conscious and deliberate acts, not just unconscious reactions caused
by structural or economic forces. Ethnic minority crime e.g. (riots in Brixton and Los Angeles) is often a
conscious and organised response to…

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Cicourel also found that probation officers reinforced this bias as they held the common sense theory
that juvenile delinquency was caused by broken homes, poverty and lax parenting. Therefore they
tended to see youths from such backgrounds as likely to offend in future and were less likely to
support non-custodial…

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This is the process whereby attempts to control deviance actually produce an increase in deviance,
leading to greater attempts at control and still higher levels of deviance.

Cohen

Study: Folk devils and Moral Panics

De Haan

Braithwaite

Gender patterns in crime
THE CHIVALRY THESIS

Otto Pollak (1950)

Argues that men…

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Argues that the courts treat females more harshly than males when they deviate from gender norms.
For example, double standards- courts punish girls but not boys for premature or promiscuous sexual
activity. `Wayward' girls can end up in care without ever having committed an offence. Women who
do not conform…

Comments

meltowers

Very extensive amount of revision. Great for people like me, where their teacher has lacked in the aided revision area. Really helpful, thank you for helping me pass my exam!

dearsammiie

You forgot Phil Colens - Subculture?

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