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Crime and Deviance

Crime is behaviour which breaks the laws of society resulting to action by formal
agencies of social control. Deviance is behaviour which goes against the dominant
social norms of a specific society or group and causes disapproval. These change over
time, societies, context, person and place. Functionalism…

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explain this by combining two factors: structural (society's unequal opportunity structure)
and cultural (strong emphasis on success goals and weaker on legitimate means).
Deviance is the result of a strain between goals that a culture encourages to achieve
and what the institutional structure of society allows them to achieve legitimately.…

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loosely organised gang who use violence to release their frustration and gain status
through rivalry. Retreatist: emergences among those who have failed to become gang
leader or succeed through legitimate means double failures so they may turn to things
like drug use.
Evaluation: Ignores crimes of the wealthy and wider…

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Law is an ideological state apparatus (Althusser) which functions in the interest of the
capitalist class to maintain and legitimate class inequality. Snider capitalist state is
reluctant to pass laws that regulate the activities of business or threaten their
profitability. Box powerful kill, injure and steal from ordinary members but…

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employing 21,000 staff in more than 40 countries, until it went bankrupt in 2001 along with
financial scandal. Their success was an elaborate scam as Enron lied about its profits
and stands accused of a range of suspicious dealings, including concealing debts so they
didn't show up in the company's…

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increase in mugging (particularly by AfroCaribbean men), but Hall's research showed it
was growing more slowly. Hall argues that the moral panic developed as capitalism was
in crisis and the economic crisis linked to unemployment and strikes and a hegemonic
crisis so the crisis was over authority. The moral panic…

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Young's hippie study. Deviance amplification is similar to secondary deviance societal
reaction to an initial deviant act leads further deviance= greater reaction etc.
Increasing attempts to control and punish young offenders have opposite effect. The
labelling theory has important policy implications as it adds weight to the argument that

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Socialisation and the underclass: effective socialisation decreases the risk of
offending as it involves learning selfcontrol and internalising moral values. They
see the best agency of socialisation is the nuclear family. Murray crime rate is
increasing due to growing underclassesfail to socialise their children properly.
Sees the growing underclass growing…

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Causes of crime:

Relative deprivation: Runciman how deprived someone feels in relation to others,
or compared with their own expectations= crime when people feel resentment that
others unfairly have more than them and resort to this the get what they are entitled
to. Lea and Young aware of relative…

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(CSEW) and police recorded crime statistics provide a comprehensive picture of crime
and victimisation.

Type Strengths Weaknesses
Crime Large nationally representative sample Subject to error associated with
Survey survey good measure of longterm trends sampling and respondents
for for crime types and the population it recalling past events
England covers…




So useful, thank you!

beth reid





what grade did you get? 



I got an A :) 

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