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1. Functionalist, strain and subcultural theories

The inevitability of crime

Dur khei m's functi onal is t theor y
Functionalists see too much crime as a threat to social order but see
crime as inevitable. Durkheim says `crime is integral
part of all healthy societies'.
There are two reasons…

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Those at the lower end of the class
structure tend to go for this. They may
use illegitimate means.

Typical of lower-middle class office
workers in dead end jobs.

`Psychotics, outcasts, vagrants, tramps,
chronic drunkards and drug addicts'.

Desire to bring about revolutionary
change. Political radicals…

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strain theories
Subcultural theories see deviance as the product of a delinquent subculture with different values. They see
them as having an alternate opportunity structure. There are two main ones.

A.K Cohen: status frustration
Cohen first criticised Merton's explanation of deviance on two grounds:
1. Deviance is not an…

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Differential association theory (Edwin Sutherland) ­ Deviance was
learned through social interaction with other deviants.

Social disorganisation theory (Park and Burgess) ­ Deviance is the product of social disorganisation.

Criminal subculture ­ Provides youths with a career in utilitarian crime. They arise only in neighbourhoods where
there is a longstanding…

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2. Labelling
The social construction of
Interested in how acts become deviant or labelled as it.
Deviance is in the eye of the beholder ­ Howard Becker.
A deviant is someone whom the label has been successfully applied.
Interested in how moral entrepreneurs lead to moral crusades in…

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Ignores the victim of crime.
Ignores those who actively chose to commit crime.
Implies that without labelling, deviance wouldn't exist.

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(a) Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the view that crime and deviance are the product of
labelling processes (21 marks)
Account labelling theory ­ use deviance amplification and secondary deviance. Self-fulfilling prophecy ­ use studies.
Consider other causes of crime
Look at the criticisms shown on the…

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3. Marxist

The Marxist view of crime has three main features:
1. Criminogenic capitalism
2. The state and law making
3. Ideological functions of crime and law

Criminogenic capitalism
Crime is inevitable in capitalism because by it's very nature, it causes crime.
In three ways it can…

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Not all capitalist societies have high crime rates.
The criminal justice system does sometimes act against the interests
of the capitalist class.

Neo-Marxism: critical
The New Criminology written by Ian Taylor, Paul Walton and Jock Young.
They agree with Marx on many things but say their approach should be…

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A fully social theory of deviance
They aim to create what they call a `fully social theory of deviance' ­ a comprehensive understanding of crime and
A complete theory of deviance needs to unite six aspects:
1. The wider origins of the deviant act ­ in the unequal distribution…




This is so awsome thanks 

did u use the a2 sociology book that has got those stick men on it 

because i have that book and was going to use it to make notes but if its here thats a real big thank you usaved me from a lot of stress



This is so very useful. Best notes by far.



Really easy to understand notes, thank you.

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