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Manifest Destiny
There was a belief, first expressed publicly in 1845 that white American people
were destined to occupy and govern all the territories of North America. The US
Army defeated the Indians to force them off the plains to make room for the
white people to start a new life and complete the dream of manifest destiny. It
was the American dream, your right to go out their and take the land.…read more

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The Plains Indians consisted of over 30 different tribes, each one with its own
distinctive appearance and language.
At the beginning of the 19th century, each tribe had its own recognized territory.
The Blackfeet, Assiniboine and Crow tribes dominated the Northern Plains. In the
central plains, the Sioux and Cheyenne were the largest tribes.
The Sioux had so many tribes and sub tribes so they were called the `nation'
The southern plains were the home of the Comanche, Kiowa, Arapaho and Kiowa
Apache tribes.
Many tribes had reduced in size by 1840 due to an outbreak of
smallpox which struck in 1836-1837
Nomadic lifestyle ­ they moved around so they could hunt the buffalo when
they stampeded.
The Indians could last without hunting until their stored dried foods has run
Sometimes young braves would go and find a herd of buffalo. Also they used
dances to reach the spiritual world.
Once the herd had been located, the tribe would get up and move to follow
Dog soldiers would make sure that the right amount of buffalo was killed so
that the amount of buffalo would never become extinct.…read more

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Survival of the tribes depended on their success in hunting buffalo.
Flesh ­ cooked Horns ­ cups, ornaments,
The buffalo roamed ladles, spoons, toys.
which meant the Bladder ­ food bags
Tongue -
Indians where obliged
to follow.
Heart ­ cut from body,
left on ground.
Rawhide - bags, belts, Bones ­ jewellery,
containers, masks, knives, tools
shields, string.
Fur ­ decoration
on clothes,
Brain ­ tanning the hides stuffing, blankets
Tail ­ fly swats, whips
Intestines ­ buckets
and cooking vessels
Dung ­ fuel, smoked
Skull ­ Decorated for Tanned hide ­ bags, by men at ceremonies
religious ceremonies bedding, blankets, clothes,
dolls, saddle, moccasins.
Hooves ­ glue, tools
Sinews ­ bowstrings, thread…read more

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Young Indian braves gained honour and respect in the tribe by showing their skill and
bravery in the hunt.
Until the 16th century, the Indians needed skill, speed and accuracy. However, when the
Spanish arrived in America in the 16th century, they brought horses with them. This
transformed the hint because the Indian braves became swift and skilful riders.
Confronting the buffalo also required a lot of courage. They were killed a close range
and the hunt must often ended in tragedy.
Horses were sometimes bred by some tribes however they were often traded for guns
and ammunition.
Indians would go to war to capture horses. The theft of horses from enemies was seen
as an act of bravery and the possession of horses was a symbol of wealth.
However, the arrival of the horse was probably disastrous. it's argued that the Indians
were more careless about the number of buffalo that got slaughtered and lost the skills
of growing their own crops because of the fact that they give up doing so due to the fact
of how easy it was to find and kill buffalo on horseback. When the buffalos didn't appear,
the tribes could starve to death due to having no crops.
Whilst men were hunting, the women were preparing the camps. They prepared the fires
for the fast to celebrate the hunt, collected branches and sticks to make frames for the
red meat to be hung on to dry out. They used sharp bone scrapers to remove any
pieces of meat that was left on the skin. . They then made clothing, equipment and tipi
covers and decorated them with coloured dies and porcupine quills.…read more

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The Indian men were allowed to marry more than one wife so each women would have a
man to look after them. This was called polygamy. This is because there were more
women than men due to the men dying whilst hunting for buffalo. It was easy to marry
and divorce. It would just be a simple ceremony where very little is said for the people to
marry. For a divorce it could be something as simple as throwing a stick over their
shoulder or leaving the moccasins outside the tipi. In the case of a divorce, the women
gets the keep the tipi and all the belongings.
They all shared a sense of unity. They saw themselves as part of nature.
Admired the qualities of many animals and believed that they shared the land with them.
This meant no one could own it.
They were made by the natural world so they would return to earth.
The great circle described the cycle of life from birth to death and also the seasons from
spring until winter. The circle appears on many designs of tipis and clothing.
These beliefs may have developed
because like the animals, the Indians
were driven by the need to survive.
They had great respect and love for all
of nature, they did not feel superior to
them in any way.…read more

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