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Gladstone remained committed to Home Rule during run-up to 1892 General Election.
· Results:
· Liberals ­ 273
· Conservatives ­ 269
· Liberal Unionists ­ 46
· IPP ­ 80
· Gladstone formed a govt and introduced Home Rule Bill ­ some changes from the first:
· Financial aspects made more favourable to the Irish.
· 88 MPs retained in Westminster.
· No arrangement for Ulster still.
· Introduced in Feb 1893 ­ passed in second reading by 43 votes, but rejected by HOL by
419 to 41.
· Result = split of Gladstone's Party, as massive anti-Catholic/Irish feeling in English electors.
· HOL had a Unionist majority, ensuring the defeat of Home Rule.
· Many Liberals turned against Gladstone.…read more

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· Majority of Irish Protestants lived in Ulster.
· Represented ¼ of Ireland, but 57% of Ulster.
· Different economy --- INDUSTRIAL ­ depended on GB for market and raw materials,
hence supporters of the Union.
· Looked more to GB than to Ireland.
· Linen factories, shipbuilding and engineering.
· Failure of Repeal Campaign and nationalist movements meant not need to mobilise in
defence until 1880s --- THE BIRTH OF ULSTER UNIONISM.
· Responded to growing Irish nationalism and the rise of the Home Rule Party ­ a threat to
existence of Ulster Protentantism.
· Revival of the Orange Order.
· Political groups slow to materialise: HRP won 17/33 in Ulster.
· LOYALIST ANTI-REPEAL UNION ­ Jan 1886.…read more

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· The Union's support grew rapidly ­ RANDOLPH CHURCHILL visited Belfast in 1886. He
called a large meeting of Ulstermen to organise and oppose Gladstone. He hinted that
these actions would be supported by England: `Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right.'
· Following the intro of the Home Rule Bill, most Ulster Liberals broke from Party to join
· 1886 elections ­ Unionists in Ulster won 17 seats.
· Home Rule Crisis led to tensions ­ sectarian riots in Belfast shipyards led to 32 deaths
and many more injuries.
· Post 1886 election ­ Unionist clubs set up.
· Links established with the Unionists in the South and the Conservatives in Britain.
· Propaganda Campaign was carried out on the mainland in favour of the Unionists.
· Ulster Defence Association set up.…read more

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· Economic Reasons:
· Ireland had grown prosperous under the Union.
· Believed that the prosperity would end if the Union was broken.
· Especially true if the Irish Parliament were to put protective tariffs on British goods.
· Felt an Irish Parliament would be dominated by extreme nationalists, radicals and
· Their goal would be to complete independence from the UK.
· Opposing Home Rule meant the defence of the Empire.
· Religious Reasons:
· For the unionists, Home Rule is Rome Rule.
· Felt their religious and civil liberties would be compromised by a Dublin Parliament
dominated by Catholics.…read more

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AFTER 1893 ­ WHY?
· Failure of the Second Home Rule Bill.
· The retirement of Gladstone.
· The disintegration of the IPP.
· The triumph of the Conservative Party in 1895 and 1900 General elections.
· Conservative Policy of `killing Home Rule with kindness':
· Local Government Act 1898:
· Introduced elected county councils which destroyed the declining power of the landed
· Gave political power to middle-class unionists in Ulster and nationalist counterparts in
Southern Ireland.
· Wyndham's Land Act 1903:
· Solved the land problem by organising the buying out of landlords by the state at an
acceptable price, which then allowed the tenants to buy the land via the state ­ it was
loaned at a low price over a long period of time.…read more

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