Slides in this set
Gladstone remained committed to Home Rule during run-up to 1892 General Election.
· Liberals 273
· Conservatives 269
· Liberal Unionists 46
· IPP 80
· Gladstone formed a govt and introduced Home Rule Bill some changes from the first:
· Financial aspects made more favourable to the Irish.
· 88 MPs retained in Westminster.
· No arrangement for Ulster still.
· Introduced in Feb 1893 passed in second reading by 43 votes, but rejected by HOL by
419 to 41.
· Result = split of Gladstone's Party, as massive anti-Catholic/Irish feeling in English electors.
· HOL had a Unionist majority, ensuring the defeat of Home Rule.
· Many Liberals turned against Gladstone.…read more
ORIGINS OF ULSTER UNIONISM
· Majority of Irish Protestants lived in Ulster.
· Represented ¼ of Ireland, but 57% of Ulster.
· Different economy --- INDUSTRIAL depended on GB for market and raw materials,
hence supporters of the Union.
· Looked more to GB than to Ireland.
· Linen factories, shipbuilding and engineering.
· Failure of Repeal Campaign and nationalist movements meant not need to mobilise in
defence until 1880s --- THE BIRTH OF ULSTER UNIONISM.
· Responded to growing Irish nationalism and the rise of the Home Rule Party a threat to
existence of Ulster Protentantism.
· Revival of the Orange Order.
· Political groups slow to materialise: HRP won 17/33 in Ulster.
· LOYALIST ANTI-REPEAL UNION Jan 1886.…read more
ORIGINS OF ULSTER UNIONISM ctd...
· The Union's support grew rapidly RANDOLPH CHURCHILL visited Belfast in 1886. He
called a large meeting of Ulstermen to organise and oppose Gladstone. He hinted that
these actions would be supported by England: `Ulster will fight and Ulster will be right.'
· Following the intro of the Home Rule Bill, most Ulster Liberals broke from Party to join
· 1886 elections Unionists in Ulster won 17 seats.
· Home Rule Crisis led to tensions sectarian riots in Belfast shipyards led to 32 deaths
and many more injuries.
· Post 1886 election Unionist clubs set up.
· Links established with the Unionists in the South and the Conservatives in Britain.
· Propaganda Campaign was carried out on the mainland in favour of the Unionists.
· Ulster Defence Association set up.…read more
WHY WERE THE UNIONISTS SO OPPOSED
TO HOME RULE?
· Economic Reasons:
· Ireland had grown prosperous under the Union.
· Believed that the prosperity would end if the Union was broken.
· Especially true if the Irish Parliament were to put protective tariffs on British goods.
· Felt an Irish Parliament would be dominated by extreme nationalists, radicals and
· Their goal would be to complete independence from the UK.
· Opposing Home Rule meant the defence of the Empire.
· Religious Reasons:
· For the unionists, Home Rule is Rome Rule.
· Felt their religious and civil liberties would be compromised by a Dublin Parliament
dominated by Catholics.…read more
THE THREAT OF HOME RULE DECLINED
AFTER 1893 WHY?
· Failure of the Second Home Rule Bill.
· The retirement of Gladstone.
· The disintegration of the IPP.
· The triumph of the Conservative Party in 1895 and 1900 General elections.
· Conservative Policy of `killing Home Rule with kindness':
· Local Government Act 1898:
· Introduced elected county councils which destroyed the declining power of the landed
· Gave political power to middle-class unionists in Ulster and nationalist counterparts in
· Wyndham's Land Act 1903:
· Solved the land problem by organising the buying out of landlords by the state at an
acceptable price, which then allowed the tenants to buy the land via the state it was
loaned at a low price over a long period of time.…read more