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Parnell and Gladstone 1880-82
Gladstone recognised danger of Land League by its violence.
Second half of 1880: violence increased due to Lord's refusal to pass a Bill
protecting evicted tenants in rent arrears.
Saw only solution as Land Reform.
Dealing with increased violence: increased powers of arrest and
imprisonment given to Forster (Irish Secretary).
1881, Coercion Bill introduced and opposed by Irish Party for 41 hours
(filibustering) ­ Speaker cut debate short and passed it.
3rd Feb Davitt arrested and imprisoned under new Act ­ led to uproar
and expulsion of 36 Irish MPs, including Parnell. Land League banned.
Parnell's opposition to Coercion Bill led to increased unity of the IPP as
well as bettering his own prestige.
2nd Land Act introduced ­ tackled `3Fs':
Fair rents ­ fixed for 15 years by land courts
Fixity of tenure ­ if paid rents, tenants cant be evicted
Free sale.
Also introduced land purchase scheme ­ like loans.
Land Act passed through HOC and HOL.
The Act was mainly aimed at satisfying the aims of the Land League to
decrease necessity of violence. SUCCEEDED ­ due to Land Courts
decision, rents declined 20% which led to many landlords selling up,
though tenants still not able to by property.…read more

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Kilmainham Treaty 1882 and Phoenix Park
Parnell had issues trying to balance con nat and rev nat supporters ­ if he
rejected Land Act then he would alienate the moderate supporters, but if he
accepted it then the militant supporters would dislike him.
He therefore identified flaws of the Act without fully rejecting it, and also
refused to cooperate with the Land Courts.
He further denounced the Liberal Leader (Gladstone) --- IMPRISONED in
Kilmainham Jail as a result. 1881.
His arrest solved nothing ­ he became a martyr and violence increased.
Parnell realised nature of Irish issue had changed and so focused on HR ­
he also wanted release because his mistress was pregnant.
Agreement between Gladstone and Parnell: KILMAINHAM TREATY,
APRIL 1882:
Govt agreed to release Parnell and relax Coercion Act and amend Land Act to help
those in arrears.
Parnell agreed to use his influenced to stop violence and accept Land Act. Also
agreed to work with Land Courts and Liberal govt.
Agreement shaken by murder of Lord Frederick Cavendish (Irish
Secretary) and T.H. Burke (under-secretary) in PHOENIX PARK, Dublin,
6th May.
Was done by an Irish revolutionary group: `Invincibles'.…read more

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Parnell and the IPP
After release, Parnell wanted to turn Home Rulers into a
powerful group under his authority.
Wanted to make IPP most important nationalist group in
October 1882: National League set up.
Political organisation aimed at national self-government for
Ireland and winning support from all sections of society.
Dominate by Parnell and his followers.
Became electoral arm of IPP.
Soon had 1000 branches in Ireland.
Aided by 1884 Reform Act ­ gave vote to rural households.
1885-6: unofficial alliance made between the Irish Catholic
Church leaders and Parnell.
Church now openly supported HR ­ Parnell prepared to go
along with Church's policies on education.
All members of IPP that weren't selected by Parnell had to sign
a pledge in which they agreed to act and vote with IPP only ­
failure to do so would mean forced resignation.…read more

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Parnell's relations with Liberals and
1885: Parnell as `uncrowned King of Ireland' ---- was
courted by Liberals and Conservatives as the IPP held the
balance of power.
Joseph Chamberlain (Lib) ­ proposed `Central Board' ­
would have given Ireland wide-ranging powers over
internal issues. Rejected by Cabinet (Gladstone supported
Parnell switched to Conservatives because of this ­ hints were
made by Randolph Churchill and Lord Carnavon about
granting HR.
9th June 1885 ­ Parnell switched IPP support to
Conservative Party ­ Gladstone outvoted and resigned,
Salisbury taking over.
Salisbury's ministry passed ASHBORNE ACT:
Land could be purchased by tenant via a 100% loan from govt
at low interest.
General Election of 1885 ­ Parnell told voters to vote
IPP (won every seat south of eastern Ulster, bar Trinity…read more

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The Fall of Parnell - Assessment
Parnell stuck with Liberals as only group who would support Home
Parnell did not support the increasing agricultural agitation to decrease
rents for fear of damaging the alliance.
Gladstone and Parnell opposed the coercive measures of the
Conservative Irish Secretary Balfour (Bloody Balfour) to break the
campaign in 1887.
1887: Times Article ­ accused Parnell of organising Phoenix Park
murders. Article was based on forged letters so argument fell through
and Parnell's support briefly rose, only to plummet soon after.
Dec 1889: Captain O'Shea filed for divorce, citing Parnell as co-
Nov 1890: Parnell offered no defence and O'Shea got his divorce.
No immediate impact ­ Gladstone cam under increasing pressure by
non-conformists of Liberal Party to disassociate himself from an
Gladstone encouraged IPP to drop their leader if wanted to maintain
Parnell furious and refused to resign. Attack Gladstone personally,
denouncing Liberal alliance and confirming independence of IPP.
IPP had o choose b/t their leader or alliance which would lead to HR:
Met Dec 1890 ­ 45MPs (led by MacCarthy) voted against Parnell, 37 for.
Few days later, Irish Catholic Church told people in Ireland to repudiate
Parnell.…read more


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