Irish History Revision Notes

Catholic Emancipation to Home Rule etc.

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  • Created on: 02-04-13 08:29
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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
Background Info
Four provinces of Ireland
Munster
Connaught
Leinster
Ulster
Worst farming land is in Connaught (only potatoes grow there)
Best farming is up north in Ulster (6 counties in ulster (northern
Ireland))
1922 ­ Ireland is split into north and south
1949 ­ "Republic of Ireland
16th Century Reformation completely changes the situation of England's
hold over Ireland
England turns protestant
Ireland stays Catholic
There was always the fear that, following the reformation, foreign
attack would use Ireland. This fear continued up to WWII. This never
happened.
Queen Elizabeth "Ireland ­ a rude and barbarous nation"
1707 ­ Scotland and England unite
War of the World - Book
The plantation of Ulster
King James I of England sends protestant Scotsmen over to Northern
Ireland in 1610 (problems...)
These protestant Scotsmen took the best farming land
Irish Catholics kicked out to the shit farm land in Connaught
They are not happy...
Cromwell
Hated in Ireland
Massacres 3,000 people in Drogheda 1949 to capture the town
Battle of the Boyne 12th July 1690
Crucial part of Irish Protestant lives
1688 ­ Catholic King James II was forced of the English throne
Replaced by Dutch Protestant Prince, William of Orange
Ex-King James tried to regain the throne with support of Irish Catholics
went to Ireland supported of French soldiers
Catholic James defeated
Protestant William wins
o Protestants overjoyed, thinking this would put Irish
Catholics in place forever

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
Oranges are protestants who want to stay linked to Britain
Protestant Ascendency
18th Century saw Catholics in Ireland relegated to second class citizens
Landownership, politics and religion were dominated by
Protestants from the Church of Ireland
However, by the end of the 18th C, revolution spread through America
and France, the first rumblings of decent started through Ireland
Pop: 6million, 1m Protestants, 5m Catholics (2nd class)
Trying to take down British rule
The United Irishmen lead by Wolf…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
Home Rule crisis, 1900-14
D.…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
o The idea of the nation of romanticism whereby the people
have struggled for land etc.…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
Irish Nationalists saw landlords as an alien colonial clique who
had land that rightfully belonged to the Irish people
Catholic aspirations
Most IPP voters had farming backgrounds
The growing Catholic middle classes looked to Home Rule to remove the
(A Jackson) "glass ceiling" ­ "the domination of the higher ranked
professions and public services by the Irish Protestants elite or
Englishmen"
1900 ­ 75% of Irish pop was Catholics BUT
o only 43% of doctors
o 44% of…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
The Great Famine
Access to History
Key Dates
1845
Began in the late summer of 1845
By early 1946, the disease had spread to most parts of Ireland
¾ of crops wiped out
Sir Robert Peel, Tory PM
Pages 55
No deaths from starvation in his time
Only from typhus and fever
August 1846 ­ Parish Priest on journey from Cork to Dublin
`doomed plant bloomed in an abundant harvest'
`people wailing at the destruction that had left…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
o Farms were small and labourers were plentiful, so
labourers had to migrate to England
Under-employment was one of the greatest evils of rural
Ireland
o Domestic works of sewing and weaving were drying up
o Irish labourers not paid full wages, but were rewarded
with scraps of land on which they existed relying on the
potato
Over-population
o 5 million in 1780 to 8 million in 1845, despite the
1.…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
But, after August 1846, the disease struck again on a wider scale
Peel removed Corn Laws but failed in the new Irish Coercion Act
whereby he believed it was needed to deal with food riots
John Russell ­ Whig PM
i) Government Attitudes
Impatience, prejudice and ignorance of English politicians gave
some blame or at least certainly didn't help the famine
o Lord Clarendon writes in May 1847
"the real difficulty lies with the people themselves ­
they…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
o Russell changed policies
o Spring 1847, public works projects and the labour rate
were abandoned
o Now, redistribution of food and direct help and soup
kitchens (funded through local rates)
o August ­ 3 million were being fed
o Food provided by private charity and voluntary
organisation, especially Quakers who did magnificent
work
o Government insisted that free distribution of food was a
temporary measure, and as harvest of 1847 summer was
a good one, they cancelled…read more

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Ireland 1918 - 1922 19/9/12 11:49 AM
people ... For our own part, we regard the potato blight as a
blessing."
Isaac Butt, a leading Irish Conservative, demanded more British aid
for the poor.…read more

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