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Biology
{Animal & Plant cells, diffusion, organs and organ systems, plant organs, photosynthesis,
limiting factors, distribution of organisms, transect sampling, proteins, digestives enzymes,
microbial enzymes, aerobic and anaerobic respiration, mitosis, meiosis, stem cells, genes
and alleles, genetic diagrams, Mendel's work, Punnett squares, family trees, embryo
screening, fossils, extinction, new species.}…

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Organisation of the body:
Tissues:

During development, cells specialise to perform different function. A tissue is a group of
specialised cells that have a similar structure and function.

Nerve tissue: Carries electrical impulses around the body and in the brain. Made of
nerve cells that often have long fibres to…

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Photosynthesis:




Limiting Factors:
Limiting factors:

A shortage of light,
Low temperature,
A shortage of carbon dioxide,


Limiting factors in greenhouse:

Some crops, such as tomatoes, can be grown in greenhouse. This can help the grower earn
more money than growing the crops outside.

The environment in a greenhouse is changed…

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Distribution Of Organisms:
The distribution of a species is how the individuals of that species are spread out within an
area. Physical factors of the environment may limit where organisms can live. This affects
the distribution of the organisms.

Physical factors that affect organisms:

Temperature
Too hot or too cold…

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Transect Sampling:
A transect is used to sample the distribution of organisms as it changes between two
neighbouring areas. Changes in physical factors (such as temperature, light intensity,
trampling) are also recorded at each quadrat position. This means that it is easier to link a
change in distribution with a…

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Microbial Enzymes:
Some microorganisms produce enzymes, which then pass out of the cell into the surrounding
environment. We use some of these enzymes in the house and in industry.

Uses of enzymes:




Advantages of enzymes in industry:

Bring about reactions at lower temperatures and pressures,
Avoid need for expensive equipment…

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Aerobic Respiration:
The chemical reactions inside cells, including those of aerobic respiration, are controlled by
enzymes. Aerobic respiration is a series of chemical reaction that take place mostly inside
mitochondria in the cell.




Use of energy from respiration:

In animals:

To build larger molecules from smaller ones e.g: proteins from…

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Mitosis:
The chromosomes in the nucleus of a body cell contain the genetic information (genes) of
the cell. The chromosomes of body cells come in pairs. Mitosis is one kind of cell division. It
occurs:

o During growth ­ to produce more body cells,
o To produce replacement cells ­…

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Stem Cell:
Cell differentiation:

Most cells in growing organism differentiate into cells that are specialised for a
particular function.




Cells that remain able to divide
to form different specialised cells
are called stem cells.

New techniques are developing
other sources of stem cells
from human tissue.

Molecular biologists can make…

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Some characteristics are controlled y a single gene. This is monohybrid inheritance.

Phenotype Genotype Note
Purple Flower RR R is dominant to r ­ only one cope needed to
Rr make the flower purple, RR, is the
homozygous dominant genotype, Rr is the
heterozygous genotype.
White Flower rr r is…

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