Addition science - ALL topics REVISON booklet

These arn't my revision notes - they are coppied from the exam specification. hope they are usefull.





Good luck with the exams


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  • Created on: 02-01-10 15:55
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Biology 2
11.1 What are animals and plants built from?
11.2 How do dissolved substances get into and out of cells?
11.3 How do plants obtain the food they need to live and grow?
11.4 What happens to energy and biomass at each stage in a food chain?
11.5 What happens to the waste material produced by plants and Animals?
11.6 What are enzymes and what are some of their functions?
11.7 How do our bodies keep internal conditions constant?
11.8 Which human characteristics show a simple pattern of inheritance?
8.3 Chemistry 2
12.1 How do sub-atomic particles help us to understand the structure of substances?
12.2 How do structures influence the properties and uses of substances?
12.3 How much can we make and how much do we need to use?
12.4 How can we control the rates of chemical reactions?
12.5 Do chemical reactions always release energy?
12.6 How can we use ions in solutions?
8.4 Physics 2
13.1 How can we describe the way things move?
13.2 How do we make things speed up or slow down?
13.3 What happens to the movement energy when things speed up or slow down?
13.4 What is momentum?
13.5 What is static electricity, how can it be used and what is the connection between static
electricity and electric currents?
13.6 What does the current through an electrical current depend on?
13.7 What is mains electricity and how can it be used safely?
13.8 Why do we need to know the power of electrical appliances?
13.9 What happens to radioactive substances when they decay?
13.10 What are nuclear fission and nuclear fusion?
What are animals and plants built from?
Most human cells like most other animal cells have the following

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a nucleus which controls the activities of the cell
cytoplasm in which most of the chemical reactions take place
A cell membrane which controls the passage of substances in
and out of the cell
mitochondria, which is where most energy is released in
ribosome, which is where protein synthesis occurs.
Plant cells also have a cell wall which strengthens the cell. Plant
Cells often have:
chloroplasts which absorb light energy to make food
a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap.…read more

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During photosynthesis:
- light energy is absorbed by a green substance called Chlorophyll: which is found in
chloroplasts in some plant cells
- this energy is used by converting carbon dioxide and water
into sugar (glucose)
-oxygen is released as a by-product.
The rate of photosynthesis may be limited by:
-low temperature
-shortage of carbon dioxide
-shortage of light.
Light, temperature and the availability of carbon dioxide interact and in practice any one of them
may be the factor that limits photosynthesis.…read more

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The amounts of material and energy contained in the biomass of organisms is reduced at each
successive stage in a food chain because:
-some materials and energy are always lost in the organisms' waste materials
-respiration supplies all the energy needs for living processes, including movement.…read more

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High temperatures destroy this Special shape. ( The
enzyme become Denatured). Different enzymes work best at different pH values.
Enzymes inside living cells catalyse processes such as respiration, protein synthesis and
During aerobic respiration (respiration which uses oxygen) chemical reactions occur which:
­ use glucose (a sugar) and oxygen
­ release energy.
Most of the reactions in aerobic respiration take place inside mitochondria.…read more

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In the home
biological detergents may contain protein-digesting and fat-digesting enzymes (proteases and
In industry:
-proteases are used to `pre-digest' the protein in some baby foods
-carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup
-isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is much
sweeter and therefore can be used in smaller quantities in slimming foods.…read more

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Diabetes is a disease in which a person's blood glucose concentration may rise to a fatally high
level because the pancreas does not produce enough of the hormone insulin. Diabetes may
be treated by careful attention to diet and by injecting insulin into the body.
Which human characteristics show a simple pattern of inheritance?
In body cells the chromosomes are normally found in pairs. Body cells divide by mitosis to
produce additional cells during growth or to produce replacement cells.…read more

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Chromosomes are made up of large molecules of DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid). A gene is a
small section of DNA. Each gene codes for a particular combination of amino acids which make a
specific protein. Each person (apart from identical twins) has unique DNA. This can be used to
identify individuals in a process known as DNA fingerprinting.…read more

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The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic number (proton number). Atoms are
arranged in the modern periodic table in order of their atomic number (proton number).
Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy level
(in a particular shell). The electrons in an atom occupy the lowest available energy levels
Elements in the same group in the periodic table have the same number of electrons in the
highest energy levels (outer electrons).…read more

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Substances that consist of simple molecules do not conduct electricity because the molecules
do not have an overall electric charge.
Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices) in which there are strong
electrostatic forces in all directions between oppositely charged ions. These compounds have
high melting points and high boiling points.
When melted or dissolved in water, ionic compounds conduct electricity because the ions are
free to move and carry the current. Atoms that share electrons can also form giant structures
macromolecules.…read more


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