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Biology 2
11.1 What are animals and plants built from?
11.2 How do dissolved substances get into and out of cells?
11.3 How do plants obtain the food they need to live and grow?
11.4 What happens to energy and biomass at each stage in a food chain?
11.5 What…

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a nucleus which controls the activities of the cell
cytoplasm in which most of the chemical reactions take place
A cell membrane which controls the passage of substances in
and out of the cell
mitochondria, which is where most energy is released in
ribosome, which is where protein…

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During photosynthesis:
- light energy is absorbed by a green substance called Chlorophyll: which is found in
chloroplasts in some plant cells
- this energy is used by converting carbon dioxide and water
into sugar (glucose)
-oxygen is released as a by-product.

The rate of photosynthesis may be limited by:…

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The amounts of material and energy contained in the biomass of organisms is reduced at each
successive stage in a food chain because:
-some materials and energy are always lost in the organisms' waste materials
-respiration supplies all the energy needs for living processes, including movement.
Much of this energy…

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shape is vital for the enzyme's function. High temperatures destroy this Special shape. ( The
enzyme become Denatured). Different enzymes work best at different pH values.

Enzymes inside living cells catalyse processes such as respiration, protein synthesis and

During aerobic respiration (respiration which uses oxygen) chemical reactions occur which:…

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In the home
biological detergents may contain protein-digesting and fat-digesting enzymes (proteases and

In industry:
-proteases are used to `pre-digest' the protein in some baby foods
-carbohydrases are used to convert starch into sugar syrup
-isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup into fructose syrup, which is much

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Diabetes is a disease in which a person's blood glucose concentration may rise to a fatally high
level because the pancreas does not produce enough of the hormone insulin. Diabetes may
be treated by careful attention to diet and by injecting insulin into the body.

Which human characteristics show a…

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Chromosomes are made up of large molecules of DNA (deoxyribose nucleic acid). A gene is a
small section of DNA. Each gene codes for a particular combination of amino acids which make a
specific protein. Each person (apart from identical twins) has unique DNA. This can be used to

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The number of protons in an atom is called its atomic number (proton number). Atoms are
arranged in the modern periodic table in order of their atomic number (proton number).
Electrons occupy particular energy levels. Each electron in an atom is at a particular energy level
(in a particular shell).…

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Substances that consist of simple molecules do not conduct electricity because the molecules
do not have an overall electric charge.

Ionic compounds have regular structures (giant ionic lattices) in which there are strong
electrostatic forces in all directions between oppositely charged ions. These compounds have
high melting points and high…


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