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Establishing The Fascist Regime

The Rise To Power

Establishing a Fascist dictatorship went through 7 distinct phases.
First Phase, March 1919 ­ 1921 ­ Fascist movement grew from a small group of violent misfits to a
powerful force in politics.
Second Phase, December 1921 ­ October 1922 ­ Mussolini exploited…

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March On Rome

Fascist Party congress, due to start October 24th was to be the Launchpad for Mussolini's bid for
October 16th Fascist leaders decided the March on Rome would take place on the 28th October, just after
the PNF congress.
The march looked like a Coup d'état. It…

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When the fascist regime began talking about reorganizing industry into `corporations' the employers
were really alarmed, so Mussolini appointed Alberto De Stefani as Finance Minister and restricted
the bargaining rights of trade unions.
Catholic church was hostile to the new fascist regime so Mussolini tailored some of his social

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This left Mussolini free to make speeches in the chamber with no opposition present.
It allowed the King to ignore opposition. All Mussolini had to do was wait until the protest died down and
then win a vote in parliament allowing the government to continue its policies of `pacification'.

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Mussolini put money in to support fascist newspapers and journals, such as II Popolo d'Italia and Critica
He ordered censorship and harassment of nonfascist newspapers some were taken over by the
Authorities were able to ban and confiscate newspapers, which produced false evidence portraying the
government in a…

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June 1923, the pope ordered Sturzo to disband the Catholic Party, which was a benefit to Mussolini
because the PPI still had 107 deputies in the chamber and was capable of obstructing Mussolini's path to

The Concordat Of 1929

Lateran Pacts signed in 1929, providing official recognition of Italian…

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Government spending was brought under better control but price inflation remained a worry. It started
going up again in 1925.
The Italian currency, the lira, was falling in value in relation to other currencies in the international
exchange markets.
1922, rate of exchange was £1 ­ 90 lire. By 1926…

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The 10% tax that had previously existed was repealed.
Tax on luxury goods and foreign capital investment were abolished. Inheritance tax was ended as long
as inheritance remained within the family.
The Decree Law of 1927 allowed the government to take money direct from workers' pay packets as
`deductions' in…

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Living Standards

Mussolini wanted to improve the living standards of the Italian people to help keep the fascist regime
popular in Italy.
The living standards of most Italians improved considerably in the early 1920's as the economy
recovered from the post war crisis and real wages began to increase.

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1931, university professors were compelled to swear on oath of allegiance to the state. Most did so.
There was no major purge of the universities until 1938 when Jewish professors were victimized under
the new race laws.
The GUF (Fascist University Youth) 1929 was taken over by the PNF secretary,…




These notes are clearly organised and address many key analytical questions as well as providing huge amounts of information on Mussolini's Italy.

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