The studies in addiction - revision cards

This document contains a selection of the studies which are mentioned in the 'Psychology A2: The Complete Companion' book concerning the study of addiction. Nearly every study is in there.

These are designed to be stuck back to back. The colour can be changed to be colour coded or you can leave them as black These can still be used even if you don't use the 'Psychology A2: The Complete Companion' as extra knowledge.

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  • Created by: Jenny
  • Created on: 20-06-11 08:02
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McGue For alcohol dependence, Agrawal
heritability accounts for For drug dep
between 50% - 60% of cases
for both men and women
and cases, heritabi
anywhere betw
Lynskey 79%.
Studied the US Virginia twin Discovered th
Kendler et registry ­ found that a
common genetic factor Noble et al
gene' ­ A1 varia
gene was prese
al contributed to total variance
of most antisocial behaviours
deceased alco
comparison to
including alcohol abuse general pop
Men with the A1 variant of Incentive sens
Comings et the gene started smoking Robinson and theory ­ repea
earlier and has shorter drugs leads th
al periods of absence from Berridge become more s
smoking the rush which
with the absen
Koob and As a result of
downregulation, the drug
Noble et al severe alcoho
moderate alco
Kreek levels that are needed to
trigger the rewarding
the A1 varian
gene compare
sensation increase controls. Howe
finding have n
been fou
Found the A1 variant of the Gave Ritalin
Comings et DRD2 gene in people with
disorders such as Tourette's
Volkow et dopamine level
adult participan
al and autism ­ people who are
not thought to be
al loved the rush
hated it. Those
particularly pleasure-seeking the rush had
dopamine recep
Dopamine levels can be Suggested tha
Grant et al influenced by social
interaction ­ in monkeys
Volkow who grow
stimulating env
found that a loss of social are protected
status led to a loss of D2 addiction ­ les
receptors in the brain need an artific

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Smokers report higher levels Suggests tha
Cohen and of stress than non-smokers
­ levels of stress decrease
Parrott cigarette reduc
and has immed
Lichtenstein when they stop smoking,
and increase again when they
but over time t
effect of sm
relapse ultimately incre
Heavier drinkers have been Amongst heavie
Southwick shown to have more positive
expectations of about the
Brown drinking has be
to be associa
et al effects of alcohol in
comparison to light drinkers
expectations of
physical pleasu
Told smokers t…read more

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Positive reinforcers naturally
White increase dopamine levels ­
this can be caused by
Griffiths Gamblers b
addicted beca
addictive drugs such as enjoy the phys
cocaine and heroin psychological a
Alcohol related stimuli such Classical con
Glautier et as the sight of a pub create
the same physiological
West theory ­ if a dr
formed, the eff
al responses as if the person
was drinking eg: increased
drug is an unco
stimulus which
heart rate body out of eq
SLT theory ­ when a…read more

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In a smoker's peer group, Children wh
McAllister the main message appears
to be that smoking is an
Jarvis positive view o
tend to com
et al enjoyable activity which
results in becoming more
smoking is eithe
popular or accep
Examined smoking trends in Conducted a tw
Fidler et al UK ­ found that smoking
was associated with lower
Shah et al do with gen
gambling ­ foun
socioeconomic statuses ­ of genetic trans
poorer smokers had higher men
nicotine intake
First degree relatives…read more

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Found significant relationship Low self este
Abood et al between self esteem and
health amongst teens ­
Baumeister cause people t
ways that a
self-esteem accounted for defeating in
significant variance in health escape self aw
Had sample of
Taylor et al Analysed data from 872 boys
aged 11 over 9 years. Those
Bianchi and and female part
measure self es
with low self esteem at aged
11 were at higher risk for
Phillips phone usage.…read more

Page 6

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Collected scenes from 140 Reviewed 87 mo
films concerning films from 20 y
addictive/risky behaviours.…read more

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Tested TRA on sex as a
response to the threat of Sample of te
contracting HIV ­
participants had problems Moore and adults ­ found
TRA could ac
Terry et al with link between intention predict gam
and behaviour ­ could not
feel they were fully control
Ohtsuka frequency and
actions of other person
Questionnaire answers for
TRA may turn out to be poor
Albaraccin representations of intention
and behaviour.…read more

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Tested whether
Gamblers treated with SSRIs
rewards wo
to increase serotonin levels
Hollander showed significant
improvements in comparison
Sindelar et patients quit
allocated rando
with money in
et al to control group ­ supports
claim that serotonin helps
al drug use dr
considerably ­
clean urine
Meta analysis
NIDA study ­ 487 patients
with over 1
Crits-Christ enrolled to four different
types of therapy ­
participants ­ p
intervention combining Stead et al received check
oph et al group and individual therapy
most effective…read more



A very useful set of revision cards for those key studies, thank you!

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