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B6 Brain and Mind
B6.1 How do organisms respond to changes in their environment?

1. recall that a stimulus is a change in the environment of an organism;

2. understand that animals respond to stimuli in order to keep themselves in favourable conditions;

3. understand that the central nervous system…

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5. understand that the disadvantage of this simple behaviour is that these animals have difficulty
responding to new situations;

6. recall examples of simple reflexes in humans, to include newborn reflexes, pupil reflex;

7. understand that a reflex response to a new stimulus can be learned by introducing a secondary…

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5. understand that humans are more likely to remember information if they can see a pattern in it (or
impose a pattern on it), if there is repetition of the information, especially over an extended period
of time, or if there is a strong stimulus associated with it, including colour,…

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10. recall the use of universal indicator and pH meters to measure pH;

11. recall the characteristic reactions of acids that produce salts to include the reactions with metals,
oxides, hydroxides and carbonates;

12. write balanced equations with state symbols to describe the characteristic reactions of acids;

13. recall that…

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10. describe how to carry out an acid-alkali titration accurately (solid sample weighed out into a
titration flask, dissolved in water and then titrated with acid or alkali from a burette); L Making up of
standard solutions is not required.

11. substitute results in a given formula to interpret titration…

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7. use the equation:

wave speed = frequency x wavelength

(metre per second m/s) (hertz, Hz) (metre, m) ; L Rearrangement of the equation is only expected
on the higher tier.

8. recall that the speed of a wave is usually independent of its frequency and amplitude.

P6.2 Why do…

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1. recall that the different colours of light in the spectrum have different frequencies (and therefore
wavelengths);

2. list the parts of the whole electromagnetic spectrum in order of frequency or wavelength (radio
waves, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet , X-rays, gamma radiation);

3 recall that the energy delivered by…

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signal);

7. recall that, in digital transmission, the sound is often converted into a digital code made up from
just two symbols (0 and 1);

8. recall that this coded information can be used to control the short bursts of waves (pulses)
produced by a source (0 = no pulse,…

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