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Chemistry:
{Forming ions, ionic compounds, giant ionic compounds, covalent bonds in simple and macro
molecules, properties of simple molecules, properties of macromolecules, metals, polymers,
nanoscience, atomic structure and isotopes, relative formula mass, paper and gas
chromatography, chemical calculations, reacting mass calculations, reaction yields, rates of
reaction, energy changes, acids and…

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Ionic compounds contain positive and negative ions, formed when atoms transfer electrons.

Group 1 elements (the alkali metals)

The elements in group 1 are metals which react with non0metal elements to form ionic
compound to produce ions with 1+ charge. Lithium, sodium and potassium are in group 1.

Group 7…

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Covalent bonds:

A covalent bond is a shared pair of electrons. It forms
between two non-metal atoms. Covalent bonds are
strong.




Representing covalent bonds:

A covalent bond can be shown in another way: H-H (where the straight line is the bond).

Representing simple molecules:

Hydrogen exists as simple molecules. A…

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Low melting and boiling points

Substances that exist as simple molecules, such as oxygen (O2):

Have relatively low melting points and boiling points.
Tend to be gases or liquids at room temperature (but can be solid such as wax).

There are weak attractive forces between simple molecules, called intermolecular forces.…

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Metals consist of giant structures of atoms packed together in a regular pattern or lattice.
This explains some of their properties. For example, metals can be bent and shaped because
layers of atoms can slide over each other. Metallic bonds are strong.

Conduction in metals

Delocalised electrons in metals are…

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Nanotubes are one example of nanoparticles. They are made of carbon and have a structure
similar to graphite layer rolled into a tube. Nanotubes are very strong and can conduct
electricity. They are used to strengthen tennis rackets and golf clubs. They may lead to the
development of new, faster…

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What is Paper Chromatography?

Artificial colourings may be added to food to improve its appearance. Paper chromatography
can be used to detect and identify artificial colours.

Carrying out paper chromatography

To set up paper chromatography:

Draw a pencil line near the bottom of the paper,
Ass spots of colourings to…

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Chemical Calculations:
Percentage composition by mass

The atoms of each element in a compound contribute to the total mass of the compound. A
percentage composition is a measure of how much of a particular element is present in a
compound. You need to know the:

Number of atoms of the…

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Rates of reaction
The rate of a reaction can be found by measuring: the amount of reaction used over time
and the amount of product made over time,

Colliding particles:

For a reaction to happen reactant particles must collide with each other and the collision
must have enough energy. The…

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The pH Scale

The pH scale is a measure of the acidity or
alkaliinty of a solution. It goes from 0 to
14. Neutral solutions are pH 7. Incicators
are subtances that hve different colours,
dependsing on their pH. Universal
indicator solution or paer is often used to estimate the…

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