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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]




B2 1.1 Animal and plant cells

Most animal cells contain: a nucleus, cytoplasm, a cell membrane,
mitochondria and ribosomes
Plant and algal cells contain all the structures in an animal cell, and a cell wall.
Many plant cells also contain chloroplasts and a…

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]




B2 1.5 Tissues and organs

A tissue is a group of cells with similar structure and function
Organs are made of tissues.
One organ may contain several different types of tissue
Cells > Tissues > Organs > Organ systems > Whole body

B2…

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]




B2 2.2 Limiting factors

The rate of photosynthesis may be limited by shortage of light, low temperature
and shortage of carbon dioxide
We can manipulate the levels of light, temperature and carbon dioxide artificially to
increase the rate of photosynthesis in food crops…

Page 4

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]




B2 2.7 How valid is the data?

Different methods can be used to collect environmental data
Validity and reproducibility must be considered carefully as it is difficult to control
variables in fieldwork
Sample size is an important factor in both reproducibility and validity…

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


in pancreas and small intestine) these flow into small intestine to be
digested

Proteins- broken down by protease, produced by stomach, pancreas and
small intestine. Broken down into amino acids in stomach and small
intestine


Lipids (Fats) ­ broken down into fatty acids…

Page 6

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


The energy released during respiration is used to build large molecules from smaller
ones and allow muscles to contract. In mammals and birds, it enables them to
maintain a steady body temperature.

B2 4.2 The effect of exercise on the body

The energy…

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]




B2 5.2 Cell division in sexual reproduction

Cells in the reproductive organs divide by meiosis to form the gametes (sex cells)
Body cells have two sets of chromosomes, gametes only have one set
In meiosis the genetic material is copied and then the…

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


Some disorders are inherited
Polydactyly is caused by a dominant allele of a gene and can be inherited from only
one parent.
Cystic fibrosis is caused by a recessive allele of a gene and so must be inherited from
both parents.
You can…

Page 9

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EXAM: May 13, 2014 [BIOLOGY REVISION NOTES]


B2 6.3 More about extinction

Extinction can be caused by environmental change over geological time
Mass extinctions may have been caused by single catastrophic events such as
volcanoes or asteroid strikes.

B2 6.4 Isolation and the evolution of new species

New species arise…

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