A2, Unit 4C - The Presidency

This powerpoint includes notes on:

The powers of the president, theories of presidential power, the federal bureaucracy (functions, problems, checks on power), the cabinet (meetings, meeting functions), EXOP, the president's relationship with Congress, the president and foreign policy (controls over/restraints), limits on presidential power and the vice-president (selections, powers, growing importance)

I'm using this particulary for Unit 4C but it may be helpful for A2 as a whole!

This was all done by me, feedback and comments would be appreciated!


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Slide 1

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The Presidency…read more

Slide 2

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The powers of the President :
· They are the tasks, functions or duties he has to carry
out ­ they are laid out in Article two of the
· Propose legislation ­ the constitution gives the
president the power to propose legislation ­ he will do
this at the annual State of the Union address ­ it is
carried out live on television and the president is able
to address a joint session of Congress.
· However, the president can propose legislation at any
time ­ by for example, calling a press conference or
making an announcement at a public event. Eg. In the
first two years of his first term Bush proposed
legislation on education reform, tax cuts and anti-
terrorist measures.…read more

Slide 3

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The powers of the President :
- Submit the annual budget ­ this is really just another
piece of legislation but can be the most important ­
The Office of Management and Budget (part of EXOP)
draws up the annual federal budget for the president ­
the president then submits the budget to Congress.
- This submission will be followed by bargaining
between Congress and the president ­ especially
during times of divided government.…read more

Slide 4

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The powers of the President :
- Sign legislation ­ once bills have made it through
Congress ­ they come to the president to be made into
law ­ he will sign bills if he wants to take some credit
for them.
- However, he can also refuse to sign the bill ­ either
with regular veto or pocket veto ­ for bills he really
doesn't agree on.…read more

Slide 5

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The powers of the President :
- Veto legislation ­ the president does have the option
to veto legislation ­ the regular veto is a much-used
weapon ­ even the threat of veto can be an important
tool when bargaining with Congress.
- Congress may try and override the veto ­ needing a
two-thirds majority ­ this is not usually successful.
- They can also pocket-veto legislation ­ this can only be
used at the end of a Congressional year ­ the bill is
simply put to one side and left to die ­ it will have to
restart the process again in the next session.…read more

Slide 6

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The powers of the President :
- Act as chief executive ­ the opening lines of Article two
of the constitution give the president all executive
power ­ he is in charge of running the executive
branch of the federal government.
- This is a huge job and much of the day-to-day running
is delegated to those who run the federal government'
s departments and agencies ­ modern presidents have
needed their own bureaucracy ­ EXOP to help them
with this work.…read more

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Old Sir


Although wrongly placed in this section, this is a useful survey of presidential powers. Students might wish to develop their knowledge further by exploring the key differences between presidencies during the last 40 years in terms of the size and reach of federal government, the role of the vice-president, (esp Cheney) and the relative degrees of influence of cabinet members when compared with key players in EXOP.

Iqra H


Thanks for uploading. This is very useful. :D



Thank you for this, you might have actually saved my life

Subaan Chandran


all your notes for politics are so helpful!

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