PSYA3 AQA A PSYCHOLOGY A2 - EATING BEHAVIOURS

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - EATING BEHAVIOURS
ATTITUDES TO
FOOD & EATING SOCIAL LEARNING CULTURAL INFLUENCES MOOD & EATING BEHAVIOUR
BEHAVIOURS
SOCIAL LEARNING ETHNICITY BINGE EATING
AO1 IMPACT OF OBSERVING OTHERS Research suggests that body dissatisfaction and related eating concerns and Individuals with bulimia experience anxiety prior to bingeing. The
Parental modelling of attitudes to food affects children's own disorders are more characteristics of white than Black or Asian women. (Powell & same relationship between anxiety and binge-eating appears to hold
attitudes. BROWN & OGDEN found correlations between parents Khan) for sub-clinical populations as well.
and their children in terms of snack food intake, eating BELL & KENARDY studied 14,000 Australian women of different ethnic origins. WEGNER ET AL. Found that people, who had binged, had low mood
motivation and body dissatisfaction. The longer they had spent in Australia, the more they reported eating attitudes before and after binge-eating. Although low mood may make
similar to Australian-born women. (The acculturation effect) binge-eating more likely, it does not alleviate the low-mood state.
MEDIA EFFECTS
MACNLTYRE ET AL. Found that media has a major impact on what SOCIAL CLASS COMFORT-EATING
people eat and their attitudes to certain foods. However many Body dissatisfaction and eating concerns are more common amongst middle and GARG ET AL. Observed food choices of participants as they either
attitudes (e.g. Healthy eating) are limited by personal higher class individuals. watched an upbeat movie or a depressing one. 'Happy' participants
circumstances (e.g. Income and age) Therefore, people learn DOMBUSCH ET AL. Surveyed 7000 American adolescents and found that higher chose healthy food, but 'sad' participants went for the short term
attitudes from the media, but then place these within the class individuals had a greater desire to be thin and was more likely to be dieting pleasure of junk food.
broader context of their lives. to achieve this, than were lower class individuals.
RESEARCH SUPPORT CHALLENGING RESEARCH (ethnicity) REINFORCING QUALITIES OF BINGE-EATING ARE NOT
AO2/AO3 MEYER & GAST surveyed 12 year olds and found a positive MUMFORD ET AL. found more evidence of body dissatisfaction and eating CLEAR
correlation between peer influence and disordered eating. disorders among Asian school children than among their white counterparts. Although a number of studies have shown that low mood tends to
'Likeability' of peers was the most influential factor. STRIEGEL-MOORE et al. found more evidence of a 'drive for thinness' among precede a binge-eating episode, any reinforcement is fleeting and
BIRCH & FISHER found that the best predictors of daughters' black girls than among white girls. many studies report a drop in mood immediately after the binge. As a
eating behaviours were their mothers' dietary restraint and their result, it is difficult to see what the reinforcing qualities of a
perception of the risk of their daughters becoming overweight. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES binge-eating episode might be.
ROZIN ET AL. explored the way food functions in the minds of people in 4 However, a recent article by WEDIG and NOCK identified 4 types of
ATTITUDES ARE ABOUT MUCH MORE THAN JUST different cultures. Americans tended to associate food with health, whereas the reinforcement that might explain why individuals engage in
LEARNING French associated it with pleasure. Females of all 4 cultures had attitudes more binge-eating behaviour. These include social negative reinforcement
Social learning explanations focus exclusively on how children similar to those of the Americans. Cultural background influences attitude to (to avoid interactions with others or escape their demands) and
acquire attitudes towards eating from exposure to models (e.g. eating and therefore, means the measurement of attitudes in one culture tell us intrapersonal positive reinforcement (to increase strength of a
In the media) little about attitudes in a different culture. desired positive emotion)
HOWEVER...Evolutionary explanations suggest that our
preference for fatty and sweet foods is the direct result of an CHALLENGING RESEARCH (social class) COMFORT EATING MAY NOT WORK
evolved adaptation. The relationship between social class and attitudes to eating is not as Our attitudes towards comfort-food such as chocolate is based largely
straight-forward as suggested by the DOMBUSCH ET AL. study. In a sample of on the belief that it can lift our mood. However, a study by PARKER ET
GENDER BIAS - IDA American students, STORY ET AL. Found that higher social class was related to AL. Found that chocolate, if used repeatedly, is more likely to prolong
Most studies have focused solely on women's attitudes to eating greater satisfaction with weight and lower rates of weight control behaviour. a negative mood than to alleviate it. This challenges the view that low
behaviour, yet research has shown that homosexual men are mood causes comfort-eating, because comfort-eating may not be
also at risk of developing disordered eating attitudes and PROBLEMS. OF GENERALISABILITY that effective in overcoming low mood.
behaviour, including body dissatisfaction and higher levels of Some studies in this area are from clinical populations (e.g. people with bulimia
dieting than heterosexual men. nervosa), some sub-clinical (with certain disordered behaviours) and some
non-clinical. This makes it difficult to generalise from one group to another and
draw valid conclusions about the causal factors in attitudes toward eating.

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - EATING BEHAVIOURS
EXPLANATIONS FOR
THE SUCCESS & RESTRAINT THEORY THE ROLE OF DENIAL DETAIL & DIETING
FAILURE OF DIETING
RE THE ROLE OF DENIAL REDDEN claims that people usually like
AO1 ST Research in cognitive psychology has shown that attempting to suppress or experiences less when they have to
RA deny a thought frequently has the opposite effect. WEGNER suggests any repeat them constantly.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - EATING BEHAVIOURS
ate
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pro
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of
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eat
ing.…read more

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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - EATING BEHAVIOURS
RY
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PSYCHOLOGY ­ UNIT 3 - EATING BEHAVIOURS
del
ex
plai
ns
the
fail
ure
of
die
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g in
ter
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die
ter
s.…read more

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Comments

Rebecca Kidd

I wish it was made properly printable. :c But still very useful.

Entesar

it is printable, just need a printer that prints A3 sheets

Arren

What grade did you get for psy 3?

MrsMacLean

Very helpful! The A3 size allows you to turn this into a poster which is always handy!

Anna McGurk

This is really good!

Shakir

Incredible, thank you.

biiancageorgiana

Awesome, you just saved me hours of work o.o Thank you so so much

YusufTheMan

Very good

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