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Page 2

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Explain the differences between pressure groups and parties. (10 mark)

Point Evidence Significance
Aims. Parties are organisations of people who come together to form the government . Parties can play the very important and
o The Republicans currently control Congress, whereas the Democrats control the necessary role of forming the…

Page 3

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Explain why US political culture encourages pressure groups. (10 marks)

Point Evidence Significance
Institutional First Amendment ­ the right to freedom of speech, to peacefully assemble and to petition the Institutional factors are
factors. government. significant because they
o NAACP v Alabama (1958) ­ used the First Amendment to rule…

Page 4

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Assess the reasons why people join pressure groups in the USA. (10 marks)

Point Evidence Significance
Membership The American Automobile Association has over 50 million Membership benefits are significant because they may cause
benefits. members, mainly due to it providing roadside assistance and other people to join the pressure group…

Page 5

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Explain the differences between sectional/interest groups and promotional/cause groups in US politics. (10 marks)

Point Evidence Significance
Differences Sectional/interest groups aim to defend the specific interests of a section of The differences between whose interests the
between society, usually their members. two types of pressure groups aim to defend are…

Page 6

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Explain the role and significance of singleissue pressure groups in the USA. (10 marks)

Point Evidence Significance
Definition. Singleissue pressure groups are groups whose role is to organise and campaign Singleissue pressure groups are significant
around one single political issue or interest rather than multiple causes or because they should…

Page 7

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Explain the role and significance of umbrella groups in the USA. (10 marks)

Point Evidence Significance
Definition. Umbrella groups are organisations representing many individual pressure
groups.

Umbrella The US Chamber of Commerce represents 300,000 businesses. Umbrella groups representing many interests is
groups are
The AFLCIO represents 56 unions and 12.5…

Page 8

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Explain the differences between pressure groups and social movements. (10 mark)

Point Evidence Significance
Definition. Pressure groups are formal organisations of people who come together Many social movements often develop into pressure
to bring about particular aims. groups, which suggests that it is seen as more
Social movements are looser…

Page 9

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Consider the role and significance of political action committees (PACs) in the USA. (10 mark)

Point Evidence Significance
Definition. Political action committees are the financial wing of pressure PACs are significant because they allow pressure groups to
groups. have a large impact on the outcome of elections as the
They…

Page 10

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Explain the role of lobbying in US pressure group activity. (10 marks)

Point Evidence Significance
Definition. Lobbying involves an attempt, usually by professional lobbyists, to influence political decisionmaking at Lobbying promotes a
all levels of American government. pluralist democracy in
Lobbying is protected by the First Amendment , which protects…

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