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Assess the different types of federalism that have been seen in the USA since the constitution was ratified. (30
marks)
Point Evidence Significance
Dual Dual Federalism (1787 to the New Deal) ­ when there were clear distinctions between the powers of the federal Arguably the most
Federalism government and the state governments. constitutionally
(1787 to the o Federal government (enumerated powers) ­ interstate commerce, armed forces, war, post offices, coining legitimate form of
New Deal)
money, foreign policy. federalism as it was
layer cake
federalism.…read more

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Federalism Federalism under Bush (2000 2008) ­ when the federal government seemed to increase in power again. Caused concern amongst
under Bush o Federal grants almost doubled from 1998 to 2008, growing from $234 billion to $461 billion. conservative voters , who
(2000 o No Child Left Behind (2001) ­ required schools to meet federal standards to receive federal funding. believed that this could
2008). o Department of Homeland Security (est.…read more

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Assess the methods by which the power of the federal government has increased since 1787. (30 marks)
Point Evidence Significance Rebuttal
Federal McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) ­ held that the federal Causes concerns However, the " necessary and proper " clause has
power has government had the power to set up a national bank amongst voters sometimes been interpreted more narrowly to
increased under the "necessary and proper" clause. who want a reduce the jurisdiction of the federal government.…read more

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South Dakota v. Dole (1987) ­ upheld categorical which gave the o Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
grants. states more (1997) ­ block grants for the states which
o Federal grants almost doubled from $234 billion in control over their gave them much greater freedom to
1998 to $461 billion in 2008 . funding. determine welfare benefits.
o No Child Left Behind (2001) ­ required schools to o National Federation of Independent Business
meet federal standards to receive federal funding. v.…read more

Page 6

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To what extent is the federal government more powerful than the state governments? (30 marks)
Point Evidence Significanc Rebuttal
e
The federal The Supremacy Clause establishes that the federal constitution Allows the However, the federal government's laws do not
government is and federal law take precedence over state constitutions and federal have supremacy over issues that have been
more
state laws, therefore state governments must follow federal government to reserved to the states under the
10th Amendment ,
powerful laws.…read more

Page 7

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Unfunded Mandate Reform Act (1995) ­
dollars. unfunded mandates of over $50,000 for
state or local governments needed a
majority vote in Congress for the bill to
continue.…read more

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To what extent has federalism in the US been transformed beyond recognition of the wishes of the Founding
Fathers? (30 marks)
Point Evidence Significance Rebuttal
Federalism The necessary and proper clause has been interpreted more broadly to give the federal Causes concerns
has been government more power. amongst voters
transformed o McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) ­ held that the federal government had the power to who want a
because the
set up a national bank under the "necessary and proper" clause.…read more

Page 9

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National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012) ­ held that the electorate, which 1998 to $461
federal federal government cannot threaten to withdraw all of a states' funding if that state helps to promote billion in 2008 .
funds . doesn't follow federal regulations. representative
democracy .…read more

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Assess the advantages and disadvantages of the use of federalism in the USA. (30 marks)
Point Evidence Significanc Rebuttal
e
It could be One singular federal policy may not be appropriate for all the individual diverse Increases
argued that areas of the USA, which can cause significant federalstate conflict . adversarial
federalism is o Marijuana remains illegal under the Controlled Substances Act (1970), politics.…read more

Comments

ahowarth

Very thorough and well researched

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