Strengths and Weaknesses of the Teleological Argument

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Strengths and Weaknesses of the Teleological Argument


  • William Paley - 'Natural Theology' - Watch analogy
  • Frederick Tennant - 'Philosophical Theology' - Anthropic and aesthetic principles
  • Richard Swinburne - 'Is There a God?' - Fine tuning argument
  • St. Thomas Aquinas - 'Summa Theologia' - Arrow/archer analogy, intelligent force
  • Arthur Brown - 'Footprints of God' - Ozone layer


  • Richard Dawkins - 'The Blind Watchmaker' - Illusion of design, cultural inheritance
  • David Hume - 'Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion' - Criticised Paley's analogy, objects being compared
  • Mark Twain - Man overestimates importance
  • Immanuel Kant - Humans project order, we cannot see noumena only phenomena


Although there are many relevant weaknesses of the argument, ultimately, the existence of the God of Classical Theism is evident through the evidence of design in the universe.


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