'With Reference to Examples, Explain How and Why Food Security and Other Basic Entitlements Are Essential For Development'

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  • 'With Reference to Examples, Explain How and Why Food Security and Other Basic Entitlements Are Essential For Development'
    • Utilisation
      • Household level
        • sufficient, varied food prepared safely
          • allows for normal development, reduced disease and meet energy needs
            • increases productivity, decreases dependency ratio and doesn't put stress on relatives
          • wood fires cause respiratiory illesses in homes
            • PRACTICAL ACTION provides smoke hoods
              • increases effiency (40% less fuel needed)
              • reduces smoke in the home = decreased illness
          • MEDCs -issues with obesity bc bad food is cheap & lack of education
      • Globally
        • MEDCs have technology to utilise food and produce it in greater capacity
          • can use food on global markets for trading
          • Globally: overproduce food (enough to feed 2,700 per person per day)
            • issue is in distribution - in the UK, 1/3 food is thrown away
        • LEDCs do not have access to or cannot afford technology
          • cannot produce food in great capacity = food insecurity
        • MEDCs have Trade Blocs s can specialise
          • make cheaper, good quality food
            • efficient production (bc technology)
        • LEDCs do not have Blocs and have to produce everything
          • creates food insecurity bc local people cannot do that for significant nutrition
            • main diet is maize and plantain
      • NGOs (eg. practical action) provide sustainable technology to utiilise resources
        • increases capacity
    • Availability
      • food can become unavailable due to: climate, disasters, war, civil unrest, population size and growth, agricultural practices, economic conditions and trade.
      • UK has food security bc there is always food in shops
        • however, rural people may not be able to get to shops easily = inequality even in the UK
          • UGANDA: 85%  people are rural = lack of access to food
      • access to food = increased productivity
        • if people have access to food they spend less time finding it
          • capacity building
          • people can use to break the poverty cycle
      • Amartya Sen: entitlements philosophy
        • food is the most basic of entitlements
      • 80% Ugandans are farmers = vulnerable to drought & climate change
      • pregnant women and children more vulnerable bc need more nutrition
        • malnutrition increases maternal mortality and increases orphans
      • different social groups may lack access to food
        • eg. study in Pakistan = women said if they were pregnant with a girl they were denied food until they had a miscarriage
          • oppression of women at a household level
    • Affordability
      • there may be food available but people can't afford
        • Eg Ethiopian famine
          • food available but 40% inflation = £1 sack of grain now £20 = people starve
      • 80% income in Uganda spent on food
        • can't spend money on things to reduce poverty (education, healthcare, water)
          • increases rate of disease and keeps people in poverty cycle
        • Stops Rostow's model as food needed for greater production
      • mal-distribution of aid (either through corruption or if in war-zone)
        • UGANDA: dependent on food aid since 1963
          • taken by leaders mis-using public funds, puts up prices
      • politically can cause shift to extremist parties if people can't access food
      • Amartya Sen: famine is not the lack of food but the inability of people to afford it
        • development as freedom: financial freedom so that people can buy things for development
      • if prices rise, the rich are more likely to be able to feed themselves
      • food becomes too expensive to feed the whole family
        • women and girls less likely to be fed bc less important
          • women and girls are vulnerable
    • Food Security
      • When people live without hunger or starvation
      • Physical, economic and social access to food
      • development requires to be healthy, educated and have access to food
        • no food = illness
      • hunger is eating less than 2100 calories per day
        • creates malnutrition and food insecurity
      • food must be available, affordable and utilised correctly for people to be food secure

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