why does poverty exist

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  • WHY DOES POVERTY EXIST
    • CULTURE IS THE CAUSE
      • LEWIS reckoned that the poor are culturally different from the rest of society
      • SCHWITZ concluded that the poor werent culturally different
      • LEWIS thought that the value, norms and behaviour of the poor were different to the rest of society
        • LEWIS said individuals learn how to be poor and learn to expect to be poor through the subculture of poverty theyre socialised into
      • LEWIS reckoned that this culture of resignation apathy and lack of participation in wider society initially starts as a responce to poverty but then becomes a culture which keeps people in poverty
    • NEW RIGHTS BLAME DEPENDANCY ON WELFARE
      • MURRAY described a sector of society which he thought had a culture of dependancy on the state and unwillingness to work = the underclass
      • MURRAY accepts that not all poor people are workshy but he thinks a significant group of the poor just dont want to work
      • MURRAY believes that welfare state benefits are too high - there isnt enough encouragment to get a job
      • MARSLAND argued that the level of poverty is exaggerated. he argued that society should have a small level of poverty to motivate others to work
      • MARSLAND agrees with  Murray that the welfare state benefit is too generous and encourages a culture of non work
      • MURRAY has been criticised as his evidence is too weak. WALKER found little evidence for the poor having different values and behaviour
    • INEQUALITIES IN THE LABOUR MARKET
      • WEBBER thought that an individuals position in the labour market was the key to their life chances, wealth and status - those whos skills were most valued and needed would be the wealthiest
      • DEAN AND TAYLOR GOOBY think that changes in the UK labour market have led to increased poverty
        • DEAN AND TAYLOR GOOBY argue that there are more casual temporary jobs not secure jobs for life. = people are more likley to experiance poverty at some point
          • TOWNSEND believes that the key explanation for poverty is the low status of some workers which doesnt give them much power to improve their labour market situation
    • MARXISTS BLAME THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM
      • marxists think that the WC tend to be poor as a result of capitalist explotation
      • they think that poverty exists becuase it serves the needs of the capitalist class in society
        • KINCAID  1)  low paid provide cheap labour supply for the capitalist class which keeps profits high
  • MARXIST EXPLANATIONS CRITICISMS
    • marxist explanations dont explain why some groups are more likely to experiance poverty- they treat it as a characteristic of capitalism and as something the whole WC suffer from
    • it ignores the effects of gender and ethnicity on poverty
    • capitalism creates wealth in the economy - this contibutes to the reduction of absolute poverty

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