When and why did the cold war start?

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  • Created by: C.P.
  • Created on: 25-06-14 18:54
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  • When and why did the cold war start?
    • USA's aims and beliefs
      • Open Markets, Basically America allowed capitalist to spread massively which angered communists.
      • Self-determination, The right of all national groups to decide their own form of government according to the democratic wishes of its people.
      • Collective security, The Bolsheviks saw the League of Nations as an instrument of world capitalism.
      • Wilsonian Liberalism
      • However,Wilson position undermined him. The general public preferred an isolationist policy and he had a senate majority against him. As a result,America did not support join the League of Nations
    • Attitudes of the west towards communism and USSR
      • In Europe, US influence was achieved mainly by consent through the United Nations.
      • On the other hand, Soviet influence was imposed in Europe.
      • Due to the power struggle that was left as a result of WW2, ideological differences made future action difficult.
      • "Whoever occupies a territory imposes his own social system... it cannot be otherwise" - Stalin, 1945
    • Role of Personality
      • Initially, Roosevelt was on relatively good terms with Stalin as he was part of the minority that was optimistic with the relations.
      • However when he died, Truman who replaced was a hard-line anti-communist which rapidly soured the relationship.
      • Churchill, was suspicious of Stalin.The Percentages Deal of 1944 limited Stalins actions after the war, which raised tensions.
      • "Unless Russia is faced with an iron fist and strong language,another war is in the making".
    • As a result of WW2
      • The creation of the world bank placed strain on the relations
      • The division of Germany brought tension as America wanted to have it recover as it was essential for the recovery of Europe
      • This was because the tough conditions placed on applications for loans caused disputes between the USA and the USSR. This was highlighted by the disputes over the Marshall aid
      • Major distrust was caused by the use of Atomic bombs without Russia's consent during WW2
    • Russian history 1917 - 1920's
      • When communism came to the fore in 1917, it sent shivers down the spines of capitalist as one of the largest countries in the world now had an opposing ideology.
      • They faced civil war after WW1. They won, but at a great cost and as a result, during the 20's they only just survived.
      • During the 30's Stalin introduced policies that would allow them to recover and become a major power,alongside the US during WW2.
    • Stalin himself
      • At Potsdam, Stalin had 5 million Germans removed from Poland which raised massive fears.
      • At Yalta, Stalin wanted to establish a Communist government in Poland.
      • His expansionist policy, which included the Berlin Blockade, the Korean War and the Chinese Civil War, all raised further fear.
      • In 1948, when Czechoslovakia launched a coup against its government and became communist, there were no more democracies in Eastern Europe.


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