industrialisation or urbanisation

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  • Created by: Anya
  • Created on: 05-12-14 13:56
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  • WHAT HAD THE MOST IMPORTANT ROLE IN THE TRANSFORMATION OF SCOTLAND - INDUSTRIALISATION OR URBANISATION?
    • 1760 - watershed moment as from here on scottish economy and society was transformed.
      • The engine of urbanisation was industrialisation.
    • MARKETS
      • Despite a modest popualtiongrowth meaning that the home market in scotland remained relatively small, the purchasing power of goods increased.
        • Urban development openedup more demand for foodstuffs, construction material and coal.
          • Furthermore the rise of th emiddle class in urban  development, who stena nenadicreckonsmade up 25 per cent of urban population by 1800, meant that demand of material items came about.
            • they showed their identity by purchasing town houses and furniture.
              • this meant that industrialisation was needed.
                • Scottish urbanisation and industrialisation were both results of the same economic forces because the town and city environments gave much easier access to markets.
                  • having said this, commercial success would foster urban expansion.the production and merchandising of goods in bulk was labour intensive in this period and required large numbers of peole
                    • BUT IT IS IMPORTANT TO EMPHASISE THAT INDUSTRY DID NTO NECESSARILY OR INEVITABLY GENERATE LARGE SCALE MOVEMENT TO URBAN AREAS - AS LATE AS 1830S FOR EXAMPLE,AROUND TOW THIRDS OF SCOTLAND HAND LOOM WEAVERSLIVED IN THE COUNTRYSIDE.
            • this meant that industrialisation was needed.
              • Scottish urbanisation and industrialisation were both results of the same economic forces because the town and city environments gave much easier access to markets.
                • having said this, commercial success would foster urban expansion.the production and merchandising of goods in bulk was labour intensive in this period and required large numbers of peole
                  • BUT IT IS IMPORTANT TO EMPHASISE THAT INDUSTRY DID NTO NECESSARILY OR INEVITABLY GENERATE LARGE SCALE MOVEMENT TO URBAN AREAS - AS LATE AS 1830S FOR EXAMPLE,AROUND TOW THIRDS OF SCOTLAND HAND LOOM WEAVERSLIVED IN THE COUNTRYSIDE.
    • GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION
      • What ensured Scotland'ssuccess in the global market was its geographical position and natural endowment. not only did scotland share a boarder with englan but it had easy access by sea to ireland and scandanavia and the baltic in the east.
        • Indeed the central lowlands were almost fashion dby nature for industrialisation. by 1800 60% of all urban dwellers were living in ednbrugh or glasgow so market demand was therefore concentrated and buoyant.
          • Furthermore, these cities were rich in ironstone and coal - the minerals needed for early industrialisation and close to ports and sources of labour in towns.
            • construction of roads, canals and coastal connections meant that the lowlands aquired a good transportation network - these jobs required a pool of labour.
    • LABOUR
      • Most jobs, agriculture and industry, were done by hand up until the 1820s at least.
        • scots were generally a migratory people and in the 1790s with sheep clearances a lot of people moved to the lowlands also moved there for harvest work - no shortage of labour
          • women and children and irish also worked hard in factories
            • national population grown in scotland sped up after 1800 meaning there was no shortage in labour.
        • skill shortages abounded in coal mining and ironstone mining and nail and glass making.also factory employment - costly machines had to be run on a continuo stasis and this meant long hours, a disciplined work force and even night time working.
          • scots were generally a migratory people and in the 1790s with sheep clearances a lot of people moved to the lowlands also moved there for harvest work - no shortage of labour
            • women and children and irish also worked hard in factories
              • national population grown in scotland sped up after 1800 meaning there was no shortage in labour.

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