urbanisation and immigration america 19thC

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  • urbanisation
    • urbanisation and immigration
      • immigration
        • from europe/asia, was before northern and western but now southern and eastern so 'new imigrants groups moved to US' after 1870s
        • obvious on coasts= come to settle with others who share same religion/ language, helps protect immigrants from shock of radical transformation that comes with moving to new country
        • NY= 1890 80% population born overseas
        • pull factors= america seen as land of opportunity, american industry thanks to big business, also needed cheap labour
        • 1870s= 3M immigrants, 1880= 5M, 1890s= 3 1/2 despite great depression
          • 20M in 40years
        • Jews, Slavs, Russians, Czech's etc, bringing new language and religion
        • after 1892 interrogated and given series of tests before can get in
        • small fraction didnt get in, polticial threat or serious illness
    • rural to superpower by early 20thC
    • 1860= 31.5M 1890= 63M population
    • urbanisation made possible due to technology and expanding of industrialisation
    • city expansion horizontal with things like street cars and trams
      • some cities use planes
    • developing steel industries= bridges, subways allows further expansion
    • grid system, roads numbered from 1 upwards, city planners
    • new cities= urban workers often little wealth, lots of people share small spaces
      • population densities become unhealthy, un-livable, dangerous, limited sewage and ventilation, health and safety (no fire escapes)
        • dumbell tenament= aim to provide ventilation/space between buildings but didnt realise oxygen spreads fire.. families of 12 would share 2 bedroom
    • growth of slums, city dwellers reliant on gov, problems created like sewage, firefighters etc
    • rural come to city for push factors; to escape isolation and agricultural depression

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