Roads to Modernity- The Making of 'THe American Century': The United States 1865-1941

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  • Created on: 21-04-17 01:53
How did What TImes writer in 1941 describe American century?
"The world of the 20th century...must be to a significant degree the American century."
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What was one of the events after 1941 underlined this quote based on the war?
Key US role in Allied victory
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What was another event based on institutions?
New post-war institutions
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What was another event based on Woods and global currency?
Breton woods and supremacy of dollar as the global currency
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What did the United States arise as during ww1?
A global superpower
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Describe how the United States were a super-power?
Armed forces spread across the world, economy permeate markets around the world, ideologies shape other nation's development and culture,
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What di Rogers argue about America as a land?
It was abundant in readily exploitative natural resources, far from other great powers, central power of warfare, hereditary aristocracy monopolizing landed property,
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What had the United States in 1865 just come out of with what consequences?
-Five years of Civil war, -600,000 dead
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What kind of economy did the US have in 1865?
Agricultural economy
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What kind of influence did they have overseas?
Limited overseas influence
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At this point what do anxieties linger about?
European invasion
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What is aniother description of the United States in 1865, how much did the Government in Washington control>
Only about half of the American continent- Some places off limit
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What are the six drivers of American power?
1) Westward expansion 2) Overseas expansion (or imperialism), 3) Industrialisation 4) Immigration 5)Mass culture, mass economy 6)Powerful centralised state
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What is exceptionalism?
Belief America is an extraordinary country, a 'city on a hill', leader of the free world, and has exceptional existence- Rooted in American national identity
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What did Hunt argue exceptionalism was?
"Exceptionalism has performed for generations of Americans that essential function of giving order to their vision of the world and defining their place in it."
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What are the two tales of two ideologies?
1) Liberal democracy 2)Racial hierarchies
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For liberal democracy, what was their an idealistic faith in?
The power and fundamental virtue of liberal democratic values
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Where are there forged in?
the American struggle for independence from British rule
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For liberal democracy, what was their a legacy of struggle for?
Independence with the early Republic
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What did they introduce?
Bill of Rights constitution
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What ideas did liberalism have?
Idea all men are created equal- Personal freedom, equality, individual rights
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How is this exceptional to the US and the New World?
It is a stark contrast with the collectivism, the monarchies and autocracies of the old world and Europe
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What else is also exceptional based on 'Manifest Destiny'?
Providential, God given mission to remake the American continent and the world using ideas of liberal democracy
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Who was this belief system reinforced by?
Reinforced by American leaders and set in ways by those visiting America,
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What did who argue about Democracy in America in 1835?
-Tocqueville, -"There is one country in the world where the great social revolution [of democracy] seems to have nearly reached its natural limits...this country is reaping the fruits of the democratic revolution."
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What does Tocqueville description of America suggest about its unique development?
It shows the purity of this document and liberal democracy- They want to stay true to these ideas but also used them for expansion
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For the second tale of ideologies for racial hierarchies, what arguably made it a racialised state?
Abiding commitment to hierarchies of race
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What kind of community was it based on race?
It was a racially exclusive national community
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What was the US's laws on slavery?
The US constitution legalised this,
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What divide ws there based on racial discrimination?
North-South reconciliation based on racial discrimination
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What did this divide impact on?
Territorial expansion; immigration; labour relations; state-building
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What does Hunt say about race in America and what did it guide?
"A national preoccupation with race", -Guided the American experience of national building, territorial expansion
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How did this racial discrimination and slaveryeffect liberal democracy?
Struggle to reconcile this commitment to liberal democracy and attachment with racial hierarchies,
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For Westward expansion, when was there rapid expansion of the western half of frontier with available land, although who was this populated by?
-Second half of 19th century, -Although was populated with Mexicans
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What was there a classic example of at home to do with the spread of liberalism?
Classic example of 'Manifest Destiny' at home
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What tradition emerged in the US based on settling?
There was a settler, pioneer tradition
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WHat was there a development of due to westward expansion?
Development fo industry, trade, transportation
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What was the role of western expansion in making the US?
It was central to making of American character, even nation,
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Why did America move western and what progresses this?
Move western to set up communities in hostile lands- Industry progresses this
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Who created 'The Frontier Thesis' and when?
Turner, -1893
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What does Turner say in the 'Frontier Thesis' about American social development and frontiers?
'American social development has been continually beginning over again on the frontier. This perennial rebirth this fluidity of American life, this expansion westward with its new opportunities"
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What does it also say in the 'Frontier Thesis', what did it say about what the frontier promoted for the people and what was dependent on the frontier?
"The Frontier promoted the formation of a composite nationally for the American people... the growth of nationalism and the evolution of American political institutions were dependent on the advance of the frontier."
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What does Turner argue about frontier individualism and democracy?
Frontier individualism has from the beginning promoted democracy
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However, what was th ecost of expansion move westward?
The oppression of races who were seen as inferior and savage
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What races did this include?
Mexicans and American Indians as they wanted more land,
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What happened to communities considered "savage", "barbarian", "uncivilised" and "inferior"?
Conquest and repression of such communities,
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Give two examples of the American army repressing two races with what events?
-Indian wars, -Wounded Knee Massacre 1890 where the Su Tribe were massacred by the American army
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What did these events lead to?
Disease, starvation, environmental damage
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What did Williams suggest this was as sign of?
A sign of overseas expansion to come?
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What did Roosevelt say about these racial events?
"This great continent could not have been kept as nothing but a game preserve for squalid savages"
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How did people view this process rather than what?
People didn't view this process as genocide but a necessary process for expansion
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What was the idea of racial superiority?
White Americans have divine right to conquer the 'savage' west,
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For overseas expansion, what doctrine in 1823 said what about the American continent?
-Monroe Doctrine, -American continent off limits to European power- any incursion by then would be seen as unfiriendly
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How rapid was its expansion and why?
Slow to exert its power onto the world, -The USA placed little emphasis on overseas expansion in the 19th century
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When was the watershed decade?
1890s
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When was the Venezuelan border dispute and what ws it?
1895, -Forces Britain to back down over claims to America,
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When was the annexation of Hawaii?
1898
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What also happened in 1898 based on a war and the result?
Spanish-American War, -US successfully annexed the Philippians
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Where was there economic expansion and the effect of this?
There was economci expansion into East Asia and China, -Exports to Japan and China double,
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What did the US build based on the Navy?
Construction of powerful Navy ('Great White Fleet')
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Why did America expand overseas based on America's frontiers?
Closing of American continental frontier
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What crisis were America having?
political and economic crisis,
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What is another reason based on competition and in particular where at the time
Europe was also expanding, particularly with the Scramble for Africa
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How had America expanded by 1893?
America had conquered almost all of the USA and so looked over seas for more resources,
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What did Roosevelt write that added to the Monroe Doctrine and when?
'Corollary to the Monrow Doctrine in 1904
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What did it say in this Corollary?
'Every nation...which desires to maintain its freedom [and] independence must ultimately realise that the right of independence cannot be separated from the responsibility of making good use of it."
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Therefore, what is it saying about America and its choice?
America has the pwoer to pick and choose the land it wants to expand into
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For historians and expansion, what two historians suggested there was an America Empire?
Williams, LaFeber
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What did they argue there was a need for?
New resources, markets
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What did they also argue about their economic policy?
It was an 'open door' economic policy
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What do they argue there was an importance of based on business?
Importance of US business interests,
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What other approaches influenced the US?
Marxism and New Left approachs
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What did Pletcher and May argue about the Empire?
Empire by default
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What kind of process do they describe this as?
Problematic, disorderly process
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What strength did the USA have with imperialism?
Strength of anti-imperialism in US
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What does May describe about America and greatness?
"The US had greatness thrust upon it"
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Who talked about ideology, gender and race in the US?
Ideology, gender and race
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what did he argue about US value and an example with religion?
Idealistic faith in US values, -Manifest destiny
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What do they argue there are anxieties over based on men?
Anxieties over American manhood, masculinity,
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What three things do they argue about race based on superiority, burden, Darwinism?
-Faith in Anglo-Saxon superiority, -Social Darwinism, -'white man's burden'
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For industrialisation, describe expansion?
Massive industrial expansion and growth
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What economy developed?
Agriculture economy developed
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Give some examples of new industries and commodities and how does this affect availability?
Steel, electricity, -Affects availability of resources through expansion
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What kind of policies did the Gvernment introduced for industry?
Pro-business government policies
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What was there an influx of and what propels this?
Influx of immigrant workers -Development of railway propels this in the late 19th century
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Give some examples of new industrial cities and what is the effect on American economy?
Cleveland, Chicago, Pittsburgh, -It transforms American economy from farmer style to industrial
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Therefore, whose template were they following?
Following European template
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What was the 'Gilded Age' comprised of?
Corruption, speculation, monopolisation- In the hands of small number of elites
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How was there an incredible social cost?
With inequality, poverty and racial strife,
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What was used to thwart class solidarity and how?
-Racial divisions, -Often employers used black workers as strike workers, to thwart the attempts at class soldiarity
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Who wrote the Gospel of Wealth in 1889?
Carnegie
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What does Carnegie argue in thi Gospel of Wealth about changes in civilisation between millionaries and labourers?
"The contrast between the palace of the millionaire and the cottage of the labourer with us today measures the change which has come with civilisation....welcomed as highly beneficial"
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What does Carneige also say about race?
"It is well, nay, essential, for the progress of the race."
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For mass immigration, where did this begin and what was it called?
'The Great Wave' -19th century immigration
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From 1860-1890, how many immigrated from North Europe?
1o milliom
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From 1890 to 1914, how many immigrated from SOuth/East Europe such as whre?
20 million, Such as Italy, Poland and several million jews
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Why are these immigrants important?
As they provide cheap labour for their rapidly growing economy,
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Was it just Europeans who immigrated?
No, it was also East Asia, Mexico etc
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Who was in the 'Great Migration'?
Rural African Americans into Northern cities,
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For significant impacts, what was one based on rise of cities? What was this development fuelled by?
-Urbanisation, -Fuelled by influx of immigration
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What is another impact?
Cultural change e.g.Rights an Constitution
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What is another significant impact based on the democracy?
Democratic Party resurgence as the dominant political party,
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What is another impact based on liberalism?
Testament to the transformative liberal democracy
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What did Rogers argue about a sense of national superiority and self-importance as an impact?
If European visitors to the 19th century US suffered under the self-importance of the Americans, American travellers to Germany and England suffered uner a sense of national superiority as well,
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What did Jacobson argue about immigration?
Immigration as a "racial odyssey"
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What does he argue there was a hierarchy of?
Hierarchies of whiteness
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What did he argue there was a desirabiliy of?
Anglo-Saxon desirability
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What organisations does Jacobson argue there was a rise in and what was their aim?
Rise in nativist organisation such as the Ku Kulx Klan, to "preserve the American race"
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What does Jacobson also argue about immigration restrictions reflecting what?
Racial hierarchy
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For restrictions with immigration, what was the first in the 1880s and what did it do?
Exclusion Act- Desgined to exclude all Chinese and Asian immigrations
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Wen was the Immigration Act and what did it do?
1917, -Bans all immigrants also from China and Asia
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What was the Act introduced in 1924 and what racial quota did it impose?
-National Origins Act, -"America must remain American"- Racial quotas imposed from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as on all immigration
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Who was the vice President in 1921 and what did he say about immigration and race?
-Coolidge, -"Biological laws tell us that certain divergent people will not mix or blend...Quality of mind and body suggests that observance of ethnic law is as great a necessity to a natiin as immigration law."
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Therefore, what is combined with racial hierarchies based on libral?
Combination with liberal democratic emancipation
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For mass economy and mass culture, describe the mass economy and mass production?
-Industrial consolidation, -Dominant corporations, -Standardised models of mass production (Fordism)
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Give some examples of mass cukture?
cinema, radio, chain stores, brands
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What was there a potential for?
Export over seas,
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Who argued America was a nationalising force?
Cohen
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What was there a reduction of based on class and race?
There was a reduction of clas conflict and national/ethnic differences
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What was there an increase in based on living?
Increased living standards
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FOr the argument American was socio-economically, racially exclusive, what was there a persistence of?
Extreme povety
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For racial exclusivity, what case was a landmark constitutional lw case?
Plessy v Ferguson
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What did this case uphold?
It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facitilties under the doctrine of 'separate but equal'
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FOr racial exclusivity, what was the racial caste sytem in the South and what was it?
'Jim Crow', -Was more than a series of rigid anti-black laws,
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Was there access to mass culture and mass economy?
Access to mass culture but mass economy not equal to all
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Therefore, was America a powerful state?
There is the myth of the weak American state, which is a product of American exceptionalism
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When was there a remarkable expansion ofthe American state?
In progressive, New Deal eras
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What does he question about what the state was working to expand or maintain?
Was the state working to expand participation in US democracy? Or maintain racial hierarchies?
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What does waht historian argue about the myth of America being weak?
-Novak, -"The myth of the 'weak' AMerican state is a fiction... [It] is not longer reasonable or even interesting. It should be rejected."
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In the case of American exceptionalism, what does Rogers argue about the term?
He argues it was a latecomer to American historical and political analysis
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Of all American history, what clings most strongly to the exceptionalist belief?
Political history
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What is an argument for exceptionalism based on power and expansion?
Its rise to power and territorial expansion is impressive and exceptional
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How was the pace?
Unprecedented pace of growth, development
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What is another example of exceptionalism based on revolutions?
There are no revolutions, but are there class conflicts?
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What doess Roger argue about there lack of revolutions?
United states seemed to have skated unscathed past the disasters of the mid 20th century, past the revolutions of the left in Russia, of the right in Italy and the instabilities of central Europe,
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What is another case of exceptionalism based on expansion?
America expanded rather than made an Empire
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What is another case of exceptionalism based on liberalism and race?
Liberal democratic values and racial hierarchies
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What does Bancroft describe about liberal values?
The prime mover was the "world spirit" of liberty taking up, for a moment, its abode in America,
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What is another example of exceptionalism based on Rogers?
Rogers argues states, in fact, was one of the several strands that was distinctive about Amrica,
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What is another example of exceptionalism with the American Revolution?
It differs from the European revolution- American revolution didn't produce the extremes of Europes or the horrors,
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What is another example of exceptionalism based on ruling class and the past?
They don't have a feudal or aristocrat past,
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What is another example based on class?
There is no economic or social classes- Classless society,
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What is another example of exceptionalism based on migration?
Melting pot- US the only country which manages to include all nationalities and race,
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However, is the exceptionalism definite?
It is a problematic contradictory concept,
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What does Anderson argue against the argument America was exceptional?
It was part of the American 'imagined community' and so invented,
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What is another reason they aren't exceptional based on an EMpire?
They have an Empire- Informal commerical Empire and formal colonial Empire so similar to Europe,
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What is another reason based on the melting pot idea?
Americasn undermined races such as the native Americans- Many races and nationalities unwelcome
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What is another reason based on industry?
Europe also had mass imrpovements in industry e.g. development of railways,
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What is another reason based on class?
Class ssytem- There is enormous economic inequality- They do have social and economic classes but less defined. Myth of meritcracy and social mobility,
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In addition, is even the idea of 'exceptionalism' exceptional?
No, the American ideas isn't exceptional as many nations beleive they are,
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How does Turner support that America isn't exceptional?
"the discovery, settlement and expansion of American form merely one phase in the long and restless movement of mankind on the surface of the earth"
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For patterns of similarity, who argue expansion and imperialism was similar with Europe?
Kramer
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What is another pattern based on imperial thought?
America was part of a network of imperial thought
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Who argued industrialisation and class conflict was similar to Europe?
Wilentz
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Who supports him and how?
-Knights of Labor, -"we declare an inevitable and irresistable conflict between the wage system of labour and republican system of government"
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What is another pattern of similarity based on industrial conflict?
Violence is the norm
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What is another similarity based on race?
Racial hierarchies seen nearly everywhere and there was a global popularity of racial science
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Therefore, what is all part of the US nation as a building project?
-Exceptionalism, Manifest destiny, liberal democracy, racial hierarchies,
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To conclude, is there an easy overall answer?
No there is no overal;
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What does xceptionalism show about Americans?
It shows how they see and view themselves and the nationalist aspect they show,
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How does the definition of exceptionalism change?
It changes and what makes a country great changes through time,
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Although how does World War Two make this framework more relevant?
AS America is the only country in which fascism doesn't take hold unlike Germany, Itlay, Russia, Spain etc and is the only country left standing,
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What was one of the events after 1941 underlined this quote based on the war?

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Key US role in Allied victory

Card 3

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What was another event based on institutions?

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Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was another event based on Woods and global currency?

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Card 5

Front

What did the United States arise as during ww1?

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