Roads to Modernity- Christianity and the CHallenges of Modernity

  • Created by: Heather
  • Created on: 20-04-17 13:37
How influential was religion in early modern Europe?
It was very infuential and so important it led Europe to split in the Reformation
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For the question of if this religious aspect disappeared in modernity, what are the two "master narratives" that have become infuential in explaining Christanity in modernity?
1) Secularisation, 2_ Revival
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How is the narrative of secularisation taken?
An idea which had gained alot of currency but is actually quite complex
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What does the 'revival' narrative concentrate on?
The rapid expansion of Christanity's global footprint due to evangelical revival since 1730s
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What does the 16th century Protestant Reformation provide evidence for which narrative?
For both secularisation account of modernity as well as Revival,
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For secularisation, what is the 'common sense view'? about what caused the erosion of religious belief?
Tjat it was an erosion of religious belief arising from industrial, rational, scientific, post-Enlightenment western world, leading to the gradual collapse of religious authority
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Who did this explanation appeal to?
Western intellectuals and clergy
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What does secularisation suggest and the world and the need for religious explanations?
World in which people had much less need for religious explanations and a reliance on an almighty power
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What did this lead to the collpase of in the western world?
It led to the steady erosion and collapse of religious authority
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What historian supports the common sense view and argues what about the close relationship between secularisation and Christiaity?
"secularisation theory in part derives its authority from Christianity's own pathology of decay and renewal"
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WHa does he argue for why people simply grew out of religion?
There is evidence it was social change rather than intellectual change that causes people to lose contract with religion
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When does Brown argue religious decline in Britain is located?
Religiosu ecline in Britain located in the distance between the pre-industrial and industrial
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What does Brown argue pre-industrial society is characterised by which we lost?
A world of innocence, humble spirituality, economic simplicity and social harmony
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There was a rapid decline of churches, religious belief and religious morality caused by what?
Industrialisation and growth of large cities,
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The world created is one of what?
Technology, competitiveness and social dislocation
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What was the perpetual task of churches in all historical ages to defend against backsliding?
They proclaimed 'faith in danger' and transformed into a perpetual thesis of 'religion in decline',
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When was the Peace of Westphalia?
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What did this establish?
Established that whoever rules is able to establish his religion over the territory he rules
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What was the problem with this for what people?
Although a problem for people with deep religious beliefs that were different to their rulers,
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What was one feature of the Protestant Reformation about reading the Bible?
It encouraged the people to read the Bible for themselves which allowed them to make their own beliefs and interpretations,
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What did Chillingworth, an Anglican theologian, say about Protestantism and the Bible?
Declared the Bible was alone the religion of Protestantism- Declared in 1638
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What does the Bible need to have done by the people reading it?
The Bible needs interpretation and understanding
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What happened to Protestantism with beliefs and interpretations?
Began to split into different beliefs and interpretations, creating larger branches when people began to make their own opinions,
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What does Erdozainargue about when secularisation happens?
"secularisation happens where religious economics failed to diversify"
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Therefore, what is Erdozain trying to say about diversity of religion and secularisation?
The greater the choice and opinions on religion, the slower the rate of secularisation
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What are the three types of religious states in Europe and an example of each country?
1) Religious monotonous e.g.Catholic France, 2)Those that wer religiously plural e.g. British Isles- Mixture of Anglican and Calvinism, -Religion had become pillarised e.g. Holland, Dutch association of Catholic Goat Breeders
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What is the third type of state where religion had become pillarised?
Separate pillars with people of different faiths living alongside one another but almost no contact and living separately
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By 1851, how many different Christian denominations are there?
Around 35 different ones being recorded in Britain
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Therefore, describe pluralism in Britain in the 19th century?
There was enormous Christian pluralism in mid 19th century Britain
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Therefor,e secularisation Erdozain argues that secularisation occurs when?
When there is religiosu monotony, where the choice people had been one religion and took root readilt
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For intellectual underpinnings for secularisation theories, what did Engels argue about religion and conspiracy?
Suggested the maintaining religion was part of a conspiracy of the middle classes to keep regular working class people in order
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Therefore, he argues religion is a form of what?
A form of social control
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What does Karl Marx argue about religion and opium of the people?
He said 'Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the heart of the heartless world... it is the opium of the people."
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What does he argue religion is then based on social control?
Religion is essentially an aspect of alimentation and false consciousness, and saw it as a means of social control,
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What does marx argue needs to be done to religion for people to be happy?
Religion needs to be abolished, which Communism promised,
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What does Weber argue is key to understanding religiosity?
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Who does he think had predisposition to rational and ethical christianity whereas who were prone to have a magical religious world view?
-Middle class for rational and ethical christianity, -Working class were prone to having magical religiosu world view
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Which belief is gradually lost on the occurence of industrialisation and why?
The working classes' -Religion is something people would grow out of as modernisation, urbanisation and industrialisation spread
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What is his explanation for those working class people who still have religious belief?
Due to the boring nature of their work
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Therefore, Weber believed most people were moving towards what with religion?
Religious indifference
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What is the problem with social theory and historical reality?
It often turns out to have short outcomes- Their theories when analysed with hard historical reality often turn out to be limited,
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For challenges to the notion religion in Britain was withering away, from the 1950s, Britain became increasingly what?
Multi cultural with a wide diversity of fauth
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Did 19th century secularisation theorists predict this?
No- They couldn't have
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What is one reason for all this religion which couldn't have been anticipated?
Due to patterns of migration since the 2nd world war,
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Although how is it an uneven picture?
Within Christianity, some denomination withered e.g. Moravianism, Welsh Calvinist Methodism, although other parts flourished or remained stable e.g. evangelical,
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What new domination was even created in the urban industrial world of late 19th century?
The Salvation Army
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What kind of presence did it lead to?
It developed a global presence
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Howeve,r who was disgusted by this new denomination and why?
-Disgust of Durkheim and Engels, -Working class denomination really offended the secularist theorists
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How does Engles describe the Salvation Army?
As dangerous
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Although, no one can deny what about religion?
That is has changed
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What historian argue what about movement and faith?
"the long term trajectory is of thinning air and reduced movement for transcendent faith"
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For debates about the timing of secularisation in Britain, what is the first view abut the 19th century?
In the mid/ late 19th century, some thought that the resuts of the 1851 religious census indicated that secularisation was taking place
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What percent of the population according to this census didn't go to church?
43% of England and ales,
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Although what evidence could be used to show secularisation wasn't occuring?
58% still attended
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For the second view about secularisation in Britain, how was it similar to the first view?
Some mid 20th century historians such as Inglis and McLeod argued secularisation set in by mid to late 19th centurt
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However, how does the second view difer from the first?
They argue it depends on a narrow definition of religion as male church going.
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What does Taylor argue about Christianity as personal morals?
He argues that christanity suffered by identifying narrowly with personal morals,
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For example, what does Wickham argue about churches and the working class which fits with social theory?
He argues churches didn't lose the working class as they never had them
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What is the third secularisation view?
Brown, McLeod and Yates argued secularisation mae little impact in Britain util the 1960s,
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What did the 1960s witness based on Christian assumptions?
It witnessed a sudden collapse of prevailing culture which had been underpinned by Christian assumptions,
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This was potentially as significant as what event?
The Reformation in the 16th century
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However, what was there a rise in as flaws were uncvered in the secularisation argument?
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What did whose work on Lambeth bring about statistical evidence in his 1982 work?
Jeffrey Cox
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What did works from McLeod and Williams show about working class?
it showed that religion still remained an important aspect of the working classes lives
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What did Smith manage to find evidence for?
An increase in church attendance in Oldham through industrialisation,
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What does Walford present about attendance and church?
He presents an increase in church congregations in between the wars,
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What does hart argue about Victorian sermons and social control?
She argues that Victorian sermons worked in the interest of presenting a systemized concept of social control
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Who supports this regarding social control, stating what?
-Robert Lee, -Stated 'clergyman stoof in an authoritarian relationship to his parishioners'
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For religious revival, the second narrative, what is the starting point?
The Reofmration,
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Protestant reading of the Bible hoped for what?
'Outpourings of the Holy Spirit' in line with Joel 2:28-9 and Acts ";1-28
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What are other words for 'revival'?
Evangelicalism or 'pietism' or 'revivial' or 'awakening
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When does it begin and where?
-1730s, -Saxony, Georgia, England and Wales
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Who describes the stanard definition of evangelicalism?
Bebbington and his 'quadrilateral,
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What are the four elements he identifies with Evangelical Christianity?
Biblicalism, -Activism, -Conversionism -Cruciccentrism
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What is biblicalism?
The view the Bible is central to faith
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What is activism?
The view christians should be actively engaged with the world
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What is conversionism?
The desire to convert others
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What is crucicentrism?
A focus on the death and resurrection of Jesus
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What does Modernity allow for Evangelicalism?
A rapid transmission of religious ideas
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Who travelled regularly between where to convey their religious ideas in person?
-John Wesley, Charles Finney, -Europe and America,
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When did transatlantuc revivalism occur and what was it?
Between 1730s and 1860s, -There were several global evangelical revivals, or awakenings
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Where did this rapidly spread to in the English speaking world/
America, Europe and other parts of the English speaking world
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What other places did it spread to under what influence?
Places such as Africa and Korea, under the influence of the missionary movement,
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It also led to the development of what in the early 20th century?
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Give an example of how evangelical religion was empowering with a Methodist class meeting?
It gave people the opportunity for ordinary people to talk about their experiences and be listened to
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How did it allow ordinary folk, including women, to become involved?
They would gain experience of public speaking, charity meetings, taking minutes or managing buidling projects
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All these skills can be transferred into what world?
Into the secular world
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Evangelicals were a strong political forced until when, and who were they allied with?
-Allied with liberals, -until ww1,
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Although Protestant Christian culture remained very pervasive in Britain until what period?
late 1950s
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Evangelical Anglians, methodists, baptists, and the salvation army all provided what for their members?
Strong social networks and opportunities,
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What was one of the pressures of the religious faith in the 1960s?
Worries the world would come to a suddent end due to the nucear war
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Therefore, for these changes religion had to what?
They had to adapt to face them- Such a reframing took place
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However, will Europe by into this re framing of religion?
The challenge of modernity continues
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


For the question of if this religious aspect disappeared in modernity, what are the two "master narratives" that have become infuential in explaining Christanity in modernity?


1) Secularisation, 2_ Revival

Card 3


How is the narrative of secularisation taken?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What does the 'revival' narrative concentrate on?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What does the 16th century Protestant Reformation provide evidence for which narrative?


Preview of the front of card 5
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