Week 6 - Identity and Mass behaviour

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  • Week 6 - Identify and Mass Behaviour
    • Shared assumption that in crowds people temporarily lose introspective and social self-awareness and self-control
    • Le Bon - A study of the popular mind
      • Paris Commune
        • Crowds prone to rational and random violence
          • Lose their individual moral = release primative insticts
    • Collective Group Mind
      • Anonymity = sense of power and lack of concern for external laws
        • Increased suggestability = easily swayed by leaders
          • Myths spread via Contageon
    • Freud - Group psychology and the analysis of the ego
      • Crowd members = No concious of their acts
        • Temporarily regressing to a pre-adult stage of psychosocial development
          • In groups we 'throw off the repression of the unconscious impulses'
    • Zimbardo - Deindividuation theory
      • Presence of others in a crowd = phsyically arousing = sensory overload
        • lose social awareness
          • Temporary sense of anonymity leads to a state of psychological deindividuation
            • Lowered self-monitoring
              • Loss of cognitive control over emotions and behaviour
    • Zimbardo's experimental study of dishibiting effects of visual anonymity
      • Female uni students
        • Condition 1: Individuation = ppts wear their normal clothes and large name tags
          • Condition 2; Deindividuation = ppts wear lab coats and hoods
            • Observed a woman being interviewed
              • Woman was either pleasant or obnoxious
                • Had to help woman learn by giving electric shocks
              • Findings
                • Individuated
                  • Gave more shocks to obnoxious woman
                  • Deindividuated
                    • Same number of shocks to the pleasant and obnoxious woman
                      • Gave stronger shocks than those in condition 1
                • Conclusion
                  • Visual anonymity = deindividuation - less self control = uninhibited aggression
    • Johnson and Downing
      • Anti-social dress condition - KKK
        • Pro-social dress condition - theatre nurses' uniform
          • Ppts in KKK = more shocks than ppts in nurse uniform
    • Criticisms of previous approaches to crowd psychology
      • Not based on actual analyses of crowd behavour
      • reflect perspective of external observers not actual experience of crowd members
      • Theories used to justify coercive action against crowds on the part of authorities
    • Crowd behaviour = switch from personal to social identity
      • Not random = in line with norms and values of the group in a particular context
        • Crowd behaviour = regulated externally
    • Development of the violence - Poll Tax 'riot' - Stott and Drury (2000)
      • Revision sheet
    • Social Identity Theory - Four key principles for policing crowds
      • Education
        • Facilitation
          • Communication
            • Differentiation
              • Target their tactics to distinguish between crowd members who are acting lawfully and those who arent
            • Should always explain their actions to members of the crowd
          • Actively facilitate the lawful aims and intentions of crowd members
        • Police = not view crowds as undifferentiated mass
    • Dury, Novelli and Stott - Disaster Myths
      • Mass panic likely
      • People will act anti-socially
      • Irrational fears will be spread by contagion
      • Civil disorder is likely
      • Collective behaviour in mass emergencies and disasters is typically adaptive w/ cooperation between people being common
    • Collecitve resillence in mass emergences - Dury et al
      • Personal resillience
        • The individuals ability to withstand stress and adversity
      • Collective resillence
        • Collective self-help
          • Collective ability to recover and function in the face of adversity

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