USA 1917 - 1954 Overview

The main events of the edexcel specificaton of A2 History Unit 3 Option C

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • USA 1917 - 1954 Overview
    • First World War
      • USA exports huge amounts of war materials to Britain and France
      • German U-boats interrupt the supply chain
        • USA exports huge amounts of war materials to Britain and France
        • Attacking US ships and killing Americans (e.g. 182 Americans killed on the 'Lustiana' in 1917
      • Political debate about possible involvement
        • Majority of Congress (including President Wilson) against
      • Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare (Feb 1917)
        • April 1917 - USA declares war on Germany
    • The 'Roaring Twenties'
      • 1921 - Harding becomes President, promising a "return to normalcy"
        • Andrew Mellon and Herbert Hoover appointed to cabinet
      • Growth of new industries - cars, film, radio etc.
      • Returning troops create pressure on the jobs market - leads to a post-war recession
      • Easy credit
      • 1923 - Coolidge becomes President after Harding dies
      • 1929 - Harding takes over as President (but had different views on Government policy)
    • The Darker side to the Twenties
      • 18th Amendment (1920) enforced Prohibition
        • Minority of the Temperance movement prevailing
        • Led to an increase in organised crime (bootleggers, speakeasies)
          • Problems with enforcement
      • First Red Scare (1919) fueled by Russian Revolution, industrial unrest, Boston police strike, assassination attempts
        • Palmer Raids, establishment of the precursor to the FBI
      • 1924 Quota Act on immigration
        • Increases racial tensions
          • Racism, segregation
      • KKK membership reaches peak of 5 million in 1925
        • Increases racial tensions
          • Racism, segregation
        • Lynchings
        • Power and influence
      • 1925 - "Monkey Trial" in Tennessee
        • Rural vs Urban
          • 18th Amendment (1920) enforced Prohibition
            • Minority of the Temperance movement prevailing
            • Led to an increase in organised crime (bootleggers, speakeasies)
              • Problems with enforcement
      • Democratic Party is small (no broad, national appeal) and is split between Southern and Urban Democrats
    • The Great Depression
      • October 1929 - The Wall Street Crash
      • Overproduction and under-consumption led to economic difficulties
        • Economy based on vast capacity to consume
      • Banking crisis
        • Led to even less capacity to consume
        • Develops into an international crisis
      • 1931 - 'Bonus Army' march on Washington
      • RFC  created in 1932 by Hoover
        • But taxes were raised making this almost obsolete
      • June 1930 - Hawley-Smoot Tariff damaged international trade
        • The US could not export
      • Interest rates were increased thus making recovery more difficult
    • The New Deal
      • The 100 Days (March-June 1933); Democrats and Republicans worked together
      • The Emergency Banking Act was the first measure created in order to prevent a second banking crisis
      • Relief, Recovery and Reform
      • 1934 - Midterm Congressional election gave Roosevelt more pro-New Deal Democrats in Congress and the Senate
        • Can be seen as leading to the Second New Deal
      • Second New Deal seen as both more radical and more conservative
        • Can be seen as leading to the Second New Deal
      • 1936 election; Roosevelt re-elected with more Democrats in Congress and the Senate
      • September 1939 - European demand for arms helped to stimulate US economy - more effective than the New Deal?
    • Opposition to the New Deal
      • Opposition first starts to appear in 1934: Liberty League, Huey Long etc.
      • 'Court Packing' Plan led to the "switch in time that saved nine"
      • 1938 - New Deal begins to run out of steam: anti-lynching law defeated in Congress by Southern Democrats
      • The Supreme Court and Huey Long posed the greatest challenge to FDR
      • Supreme Court declared that the AAA and the NRA were unconstitutional
      • Huey Long was the popular Governor of Louisiana, but he was very radical and was assassinated in 1935
    • Second World War
      • September 1939 - war in Europe starts
        • US sells war materials to the Allies which helps to stimulate the US economy
          • September 1939 - European demand for arms helped to stimulate US economy - more effective than the New Deal?
      • New Deal lost momentum
      • 'Isolationism' was a powerful political philosophy that was popular at the time and was averse to the US helping the Allies
        • 1930s Neutrality Acts passed by Congress stated what could be done in the event of a war
        • US sells war materials to the Allies which helps to stimulate the US economy
        • US began rearmament in 1940
        • Acts passed to control wages and prices
        • December 1941 - US joins the Second World war
          • Caused by  unrestricted German submarine warfare and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour
        • November 1939 - Roosevelt introduces "Cash and Carry" system for allies to buy equipment
        • 1941 - Lend  Lease Act
        • Treatment of African-Americans
        • Executive Order 8802
      • Post WW2 Prosperity
        • 1949 - Second Red Scare
          • Caused by worry after first nuclear bomb test in USSR, China becoming communist and the Korean War
        • Cold War begins in 1949, triggering mass rearmament of US troops
        • Unemployment at 1.9% in 1945
        • In 1947 the US produced
          • 62% of the world's oil
          • 57% of the world's steel
          • 43% of the world's electricity
          • 50% of the world's manufactured goods
        • Marshall Plan gave $13 million to European countries for rebuilding
        • GI Bill (1944) offered grants to ex-servicemen to improve their education or set up a business
        • 1940 - Alien Registration Act passed
          • McCarthyism starts in 1950
        • Number of cars rose by 21 million during the 1950s and there were over 80 million in the US by 1960
        • Baby Boom - 76.4 million babies born between 1946 and 1964
        • By 1953 the average family income was $4011 per year

    Comments

    No comments have yet been made

    Similar History resources:

    See all History resources »See all America - 19th and 20th century resources »