immigration

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  • how much was society affected by immigration 1917-80
    • how did earlier immigration affects reactions to immigrants in the 1920s?
      • early years there was no restrcitions
      • change of immigrants from northern european to east and western- they struggled to adapt to US culture
      • most immigrants went to the cities where the were jobs in industry
      • Dillingham Commission
        • investigated impact immigration had on the USA
        • immigrants posed a threat to society
        • established 'old' and 'new' immigrants
        • findings used to justify the Emergency Quota Act of 1921
      • Why legislate?
        • legislation was set up to try and control hysteria due to immigration
        • fear of communists and anarchists
        • Dillingham report
        • Red Scare 1919-20
        • Unemployment
        • post war isolationism
    • effect of immigration in the 1920s?
      • there was hostility especially in urban areas because there was so much competition
      • quota system didn't apply to south america so number of mexican immigrants rose
        • many immigrants were illegal and were exploited because of their fear of deportation
      • great depression led to many Mexicans being deported
      • many people first overlooked the fact some immigrants were illegal because of the demand for workers
    • what impact did immigrants have on urban life?
      • the melting pot
        • term given to the USA because it had so many different cultures
        • most towns were informally segregated where they had their own shops and culture away from normal society
        • Henry Ford trained his workers in order to 'Americanise' them
        • immigrants tried to get their children into higher education to better their lives
      • the bottom of the heap
        • newest immigrants ended up with the worst jobs, pay and living conditions
        • because of their large numbers they became a political influence
          • Roosevelt and his 'New deal'
        • established immigrants tended to help the newer ones
    • what affect dd WW2 have on immigrants
      • Japanese, Germans and Italians were seen as enemy aliens
      • 120,000 Japanese were shut up in internment camps after pearl harbour
      • business owners from these groups often had windows smashed
      • many volunteered to fight but weren't expected to fight fellow countrymen
    • government policy and consequences
      • removing the quota system
        • 1952 immigration and nationality act
        • wanted to help refugees escape communism
        • lots of refugee acts from 1953 onwards
        • kennedy wanted immigrationto enrich society
      • asian immigrants
        • many asian immigrants came to USA to flee the Vietnam War
        • immigrant numbers qualdrupled  after the 1965 act
        • 700,000 immigrants by 1985
      • centeral and southern american immigrants
        • 1954 the immigration and naturalisation service tried to control immigration- operation wetback
        • 1976 put a 20,000 limit on immigrarion
        • many people wanted to join their families so became 'illegals'
      • illegal immigrants
        • no exact record for the number of immigrants
        • 60,000 a year in the 1970s
        • cheap exploitable labour
        • mainly Mexican but also from the Philippines
      • shifting attitudes
        • shouted with government policy
        • country going badly- immigrants blamed
        • carter couldn't keep refugees out

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