Russia Dates

Important Dates for Russia in the period 1855-1964 OCR

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Alexander II, 1855-1881

1885 - Alexander II becomes Tsar - The 'Tsar Liberator'

1886 - Treaty of Paris = Russia is out of the Crimea War (the people realize Russias failures and see the need for change)

1861 - Emancipation of the Serfs (Only privately owned serfs) - at the time seemed like major change however, they could not afford the payments for their own land.

1863 - The Polish Revolt. Opposition to the Tsar

1864 - Zemstva established (local government), gave a taste for change and allowed little political activity.

1873 - The Narodnik rebellion, believed it was therefore their duty to go
among the people, to educate them politically and so indirectly inspire a rebellion.

1876 - Land and Liberty established (Later split and formed the 'Peoples will')

1881 - Assassination of Alex II by the Peoples Will

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Alexander III, 1881-1894

1881 - Accession of Alexander III (the reaction)

1882 - May Laws, Expelled jews from rural areas and restricted their access to education.

1883 - Peasants Land Bank created

1887 - Failed attempt to assasinate Alex III

1889 - Land Captains

1891 - Famine in 17 provinces

1892-93 - 'Wittes Great Spurt'

1894 - Death of Alexander III

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Nicholas II, 1894-1917

1894 - Accession of Nicholas II, like his father believed in his 'divine right'

1901 - Socialist-Revolutionary Party Founded

1903 - Slipt into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks

1904-05 - Russo-Japanese War, lost = Catalyst for upcoming events

1905 - Revolution and Bloody Sunday, was supposed to be peaceful opposition. Revolution was the dress rehearsal for 1917.

1905 - October Manifesto saw the creation of a Duma (Hopeful for liberal democracy, BUT not the case as the Tsar still had complete authority and could dissolve it)

1906-11 - Stolypins reforms, continuation of the modified state capitalism program begun under Witte.

1914-1918 - First World War saw the end of the Tsars, left Tsarina (German) in control with Rasputin.

1917 - February Revolution: Outcome was abdication of the Tsar and the Provisional govt.

1917- October Revolution: Outcome was the Bolshevik takeover.

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Lenin, 1918-1924

1918 - Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, pulled out the WW1

1918-1921 - War Communism and The Civil War

1921 - The Kronstadt Rising, left wing uprising against Bolshevik dictatorship.

1921 - NEP (New economic policy) shows Lenin was changing for the need of the country as not Marxist

1921 - Famine and economic collapse.

1922 - Treaty of Creation of the USSR.

1924 - Lenins death, creates the struggle for Power.

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Stalin, 1928-1953

1928 - Stalin in Power 'Red Tsar'

1928 - Intro of first five year plan (Industrialisation)

1929 - Collectivisation of Soviet agriculture

1929 - Stalin orders the persecution of kulaks (Wealthy Peasants)

1930 - Gulag officially established (Labour Camps)

1934-40 - The Great Terror

1937 - The 'Great Purges', set nationwide quotas for the execution and enslavement of "anti-Soviet elements."

1941-45 - The Great Patriotic War (WW2) secured Stalins place as leader/dictator, first war won in over 100years, began pre cold war tensions with the West.

1946 - Censorhip tightened

1953 - Stalin dies :)

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Khrushchev, 1953-1964

1954-56 - Khrushchev rise to power

1956 - Destalinization begins (start of 'Thaw')

1957 - Sputnik, satelite launch

1960 - Vietnam War, USSR+USA fighting each other (not literally, but on their backdoor)

1961 - Building of the Berlin Wall

1962 - The Cuban missile crisis, close to nuclear War, shows impoved connections witht the West as there was a direct line from Russia and USA leaders(Khrushchev and Kennedy)

1964 - Khrushchev forced to resign

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