Transmigration in Indonesia

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Transmigration in Indonesia
    • About
      • Indonesia is a rapidly developing country made up of thousands of small islands (approx 17,500 islands)
      • It is in South East Asia, to the North of Australia.
      • They have a high population growth of 1% per year.
      • Indonesia has the 4th largest population in the world with 240 million inhabitants.
      • Two of the largest islands are Java and Sumatra. Java is the most densely populated with 60% (around 130 million) of the country's population.
      • As the populations is not evenly distributed, social and economic problems have arisen. For example on densely populated islands like java there is high unemployment rates, poverty and a lack of adequate services and housing.
    • Strategies
      • In the 50s and 60s the Indonesian government introduced the transmigration policy. The policy aims to reduce the impact of population growth.
      • The policy was an attempt to re distribute the population, they encouraged people to move from densely populated islands to the sparsely populated islands.
      • Transmigration allowed people to escape from the poverty of over crowded slums by becoming landowners elsewhere.
      • The encouragements to move included free transportation to their new home, a house and a small plot of land to farm and a living allowance for the first 18 months.
      • It was introduced due to fears of over crowding and low resources such as food, water, jobs and housing.
    • Problems
      • Transmigration is said to be the cause of the acceleration in the rate of deforestation of rainforests on the outer islands to make more farming land.
      • The resettlement costs have dramatically increased Indonesia's national debt.
      • Many didn't have the skills for farming or the land was too poor to be farmed.
      • Not everyone escaped poverty as it was just a re distribution of poverty.
      • People were moved to land that was already occupied by natives and has led to conflict.
    • Future concerns
      • There is a high risk of increasing population as the policy does not combat the causes of population growth it just distributes the population.
      • Indonesia's transmigration policy hasn't really helped towards sustainable development as only reduces the impacts of population growth, not actually population growth.
      • The population of Java is still 600-1000 per square kilometres.
  • Effectiveness of the strategeis
    • An estimated 20 million have been successfully moved from the more densely populated islands to the sparsely populated islands.
    • The policy has not been very successful at making a big difference to the population of Java which is the most densely populated island.
    • Critics suggest that the policy has just re distributed poverty as settlements were often poorly planned with little shops, roads or services.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Population change resources »